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Zhang K.,North China Electrical Power University | Chang J.,North China Electrical Power University | Guan Y.,China University of Petroleum - Beijing | Chen H.,North China Electrical Power University | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Energy

With the critical worldwide energy shortage and global environment concern, lignocellulosic biomass is regarded as one of the potential renewable energy resources to substitute conventional fossil fuels. Among various thermo-chemical conversion technologies, gasification is now regarded as an advanced and efficient method. Based on the mechanism of biomass gasification, this paper outlines different types of gasifiers that have been developed in China. Air gasification technology has been employed in the rural areas or forestry/agricultural processing entities. Obviously, the product gas for cooking and heating can significantly upgrade the living standard of rural residents. The product gas for heating boiler and generating electricity benefits the forest or agricultural processing enterprises. For China's sustainable development of energy and environment, multi-cogeneration of heat, electricity and liquid fuels together with chemical feedstock will be a potential direction for efficiently utilizing product gas from lignocellulosic biomass. This means oxygen (including oxygen-enriched air) gasification and steam gasification should be taken into more consideration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zuo S.,Nanjing Forestry University | Yang J.,Nanjing Forestry University | Liu J.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products

Activated carbon samples have been prepared by heating China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood impregnated with phosphoric acid in an effort to elucidate the effect of the heating history of impregnated material on the porous texture of the activated carbon. Analysis of the pore structure of the activated carbon in terms of nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that both using an intermediate isothermal treatment and slowing the heating rate up to 300 °C favor pore development but have a detrimental effect above 300 °C. Therefore, it is recommended that a two-step heating program is applied for phosphoric acid activation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Dai T.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Jia Y.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products

Polyaniline-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PAn-PSS) hydrogels have been synthesized via supramolecular self-assembly between positively-charged PAn chains and negatively-charged PSS chains. Phase diagram is plotted to systematically investigate the gelation conditions for the PAn-PSS system. A hierarchical porous microstructure consisting of oriented 1D nanofibers is observed in the hydrogels, and the phase structure, molecular structure and crystal structure are also characterized. Based on the investigation of a unique transformation of the hydrogels to colloidal particles in alkaline solutions, the electrostatic interaction is proposed to be the origin force for the gelation of the materials. Additionally, in comparison with conventional PAn-PSS colloids, as-prepared PAn-PSS hydrogels are demonstrated to possess improved capacitance performance, such as higher energy density, higher power density and better electrochemical stability. The present study gives valuable hints for achieving controlled fabrication of supramolecular materials with designed structures and outstanding properties. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sun K.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Jiang J.c.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products
Biomass and Bioenergy

The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 °C, steam flow 6 kg h-1, residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (SBET) 948 m2 g-1, total volume 0.988 m3 kg-1, iodine number of adsorbent (qiodine) 1.326 g g-1, amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (qmb) 265 mg g-1, hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Shen J.,Northeast Forestry University | Song Z.,CAF Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products | Qian X.,Northeast Forestry University | Ni Y.,University of New Brunswick
Carbohydrate Polymers

The replacement of traditional mineral fillers and pigments with environmentally friendly carbohydrate-based organic materials is beneficial to paper recycling, bioenergy production from paper or deinking sludge, alleviation of abrasion of paper machine wire and paper cutters, etc., yet there are still some technical barriers or challenges associated with the use of these organic materials in such aspects as manufacturing costs and structural stabilities. In this paper, the emerging technologies of carbohydrate-based fillers and pigments for papermaking are reviewed. The carbohydrate-based fillers and pigments available in the literature are based on starch, cellulose, disaccharide, xylan, or carbohydrate-rich ligno-cellulosic forest residues, while the starch-based fillers and pigments have been the most frequently reported. The mineral fillers surface-modified with carbohydrate-based materials is not included in this paper as inorganic minerals are the major component of the modified fillers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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