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Jain S.K.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Patil P.G.,College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology | Thakor N.J.,CAET
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal | Year: 2011

Study was conducted to determine the engineering properties viz. compressive strength, toughness index and water absorption capacity of the laterite stone scrap blocks. Paddy husk ash, saw dust and processed fly ash were used as other constituents and added to the laterite stone scrap in the range of 3% to 9%, 3% to 9%, 20% to 30%, respectively. The cement was used as binding material and added in the range of 8% to 16%. The maximum compressive strength 13.6 N/mm2 was observed for the block having 68% laterite stone scrap, 8% cement and 20% processed fly ash. The maximum toughness index of 14.3 was observed for the block having 81% laterite stone scrap, 16% cement and 3% paddy husk ash. The minimum water absorption capacity of 18.6 was observed for the block having 84% laterite stone scrap and 16% cement. The lowest cost of laterite stone scrap block was found to be Rs. 22.94 for the block having 85% laterite stone scrap, 12% cement and 3% paddy husk ash which satisfies BIS standards.


Acharya S.K.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University | Swain R.K.,IGIT Sarang | Mohanty M.K.,CAET | Mishra A.K.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University | Mahapatra S.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University
International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy | Year: 2011

Rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have prompted research for alternative fuels. Among various possible options for internal combustion engines, fuels derived from triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) are a promising substitute for diesel fuel. Vegetable oils pose some detrimental characteristics like high viscosity and low volatility compared to diesel fuel. In the present work, experiments were conducted to study the effect of reducing Kusum oil's viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature using exhaust waste heat. A shell and tube heat exchanger was used with the test engine as a retrofit. The acquired data was analysed for engine performance parameters and exhaust emissions. With Kusum oil (preheated and blends), engine performance was found to be close to that of diesel. The preheated oil's slightly poorer performance was due to its low heating value. A voltage drop was marked in the electric generator when engine was running with vegetable oil. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Ghosal M.K.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Sahoo N.,CAET
Advanced Science Letters | Year: 2016

The suitability of a low-tech naturally ventilated greenhouse integrated with earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) and solar photovoltaic (SPV) module was evaluated for off-season and on-season cultivation of capsicum (variety California Wonder) in warm and humid climate i.e., in coastal Odisha, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India because of its high demand throughout the year. The cultivation of this vegetable was tried in two seasons, one from September to December (on-season) and the second one from January to April (off-season) during the year 2010–11 and nursery raising of high valued seedlings i.e., acacia mangium was done two times during rest of the period for year round use of the experimental greenhouse. The benefit cost ratio for capsicum cultivation in the greenhouse was 7:1 whereas it was 1.84:1 in case of open field condition. The payback period of the system was estimated to be only 2.20 years. © 2016 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.


Nayak P.K.,Central Institute of Technology | Nayak P.K.,Sambalpur University | Dash U.,Rajendra Auto College | Rayaguru K.,CAET | Krishnan K.R.,Central Institute of Technology
Journal of Food Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Today, fried foods are very famous everywhere around the world and it can be observed by the increasing number of fast food restaurants in the last few decades. Deep frying of foods at high temperature enhances the sensorial properties which include the unique fried flavor, golden brown color and crispy texture. Chemical reactions like oxidation, polymerization, hydrolysis, etc., take place in the food system, which ultimately alters the physical and chemical properties of fat. Consequently, so many by-products such as free fatty acids, alcohols, cyclic compounds, dimers and polymers are produced. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the physical and chemical changes during deep fat frying to monitor the quality of fried foods. In this review, we constituted the previous studies on the changes in fats during frying and methods used to analyze the quality of fried oil, in order to explore the areas which require further research. Practical Applications: Deep frying is the most common and one of the oldest methods of food preparation worldwide. To reduce the expenses, the oil tends to be used repeatedly for frying. Repeated use of this oil has become a common practice due to low level of awareness among the public about the bad effect of this practice. Nowadays, the consumption of deep-fried food has gained popularity which may cause increased risk of obesity. When heated repeatedly, changes in physical appearance of the oil will occur such as increased viscosity and darkening in color, which may alter the fatty acid composition of the oil. In this review, we have investigated the detail mechanism of decay of oil and parameters to be measured to know the quality and safety of oil. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Singh P.K.,Polytechnic in Agricultural Engineering | Yaduvanshi B.K.,Polytechnic in Agricultural Engineering | Patel S.,CAET | Ray S.,CAET
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

Rooftop rainwater harvesting, among other options, play a central role in addressing water security and reducing impacts on the environment. The storm or annual storm runoff coefficient (RC/ASRC) play a significant role in quantification of potential of rooftop catchments for rainwater harvesting, however, these are usually selected from generic lists available in literature. This study explores methodology/procedures based on one of the most popular and versatile hydrological model, Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) (SCS 1986) and its variants, i. e., Hawkins SCS-CN (HSCS-CN) model (Hawkins et al. 2001), Michel SCS-CN (MSCS-CN) model (Michel et al. Water Resour Res 41:W02011, 2005), and Storm Water Management Model-Annual Storm Runoff Coefficient (SWMM-ASRC) (Heaney et al. 1976) and compares their performance with Central Ground Board (CGWB) (CGWB 2000) approach. It has been found that for the same amount of rainfall and same rooftop catchment area, the MSCS-CN model yields highest rooftop runoff followed by SWMM-ASRC > HSCS-CN > SCS-CN > CGWB. However, the SCS-CN model has close resemblance with CGWB approach followed by HSCS-CN model, SWMM-ASRC, and MSCS-CN model. ASRCs were developed using these models and it was found that MSCS-CN model has the highest value of ASRC (= 0. 944) followed by SWMM-ASRC approach (=0. 900), HSCS-CN model (=0. 830), SCS-CN model (=0. 801), and CGWB approach (=0. 800). The versatility of these models lies to the fact that CN values (according to rooftop catchment characteristics) would yield rooftop runoff and therefore ASRC values based on sound hydrological perception and not just on the empiricism. The models have inherent capability to incorporate the major factors responsible for runoff production from rooftop/urban, i. e., surface characteristics, initial abstraction, and antecedent dry weather period (ADWP) for the catchments and would be better a tool for quantification rather than just using empirical runoff coefficients for the purpose. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bakal S.B.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sharma G.P.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Sonawane S.P.,CAET | Verma R.C.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The effect of air temperature and two different shapes (cuboidal and cylindrical) with 3 aspect ratio of each shape on the drying kinetics of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in fluidized bed dryer was investigated. Drying was carried out at 50, 60 and 70°C at 7 m/s air velocity. Drying data were analysed to obtain effective diffusivity of moisture transfer. During drying moisture transfer from potato were described by Fick's diffusion model. Two mathematical models were fitted to experimental data. The Page model gave better fit than simple exponential model. The Arrehnious activation energy value expresses the effect of temperature on diffusivity. © Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India) 2011.


Rayaguru K.,CAET | Pandey J.P.,ant University of Agriculture and Technology | Routray W.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2011

Experiments were conducted to develop a process for accelerated aging of aromatic rice. Freshly harvested clean paddy of "Pusa Basmati" variety was conditioned as per the experimental design. Response surface methodology for three variables at five levels was used. Central composite rotatable design was used to optimize the temperature (30-50C), relative humidity (50-90%) and aging period (3-14 days) to accelerate the aging process for paddy. The optimum levels of process variables were based on the desired milling and cooking quality indices. The quality attributes included milling yield, kernel elongation ratio, volume expansion ratio, solid loss, amylose content, gel consistency and aroma. A complete second-order polynomial model was fitted to the data and the adequacy of the model was tested. The models were then used to interpret the effect of various input parameters on the response. The total effect of individual input variables and combined effect of all these variables at linear and quadratic level on head yield was significant at 1% level. Similar interpretation of the effect of various input parameters on the responses have been done in details. The common optimum condition for accelerated aging of paddy was found to be 43.4C, 71.0% relative humidity (RH) and 11.4 days. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Acharya S.K.,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University | Swain R.K.,IGIT | Mohanty M.K.,CAET
Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects | Year: 2014

Bio-fuels are gaining public and scientific attention due to fuel price hikes, energy security, and greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels. In the present research work, karanja and kusum oils are used as fuel in the diesel engine in preheated mode. The engine test is conducted using preheated oil with the help of a heat exchanger at different loads. The heat exchanger was added to the engine set-up for saving waste exhaust energy and preheating the vegetable oil. The acquired engine data using a heat exchanger has been analyzed for emissions, such as CO, CO2, HC, and NOx. © Taylor & Francis.


Singh P.K.,CAET | Jain M.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Mishra S.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2013

A simple procedure is proposed and demonstrated to generate synthetic sediment graphs (SSG) for ungauged catchments. The proposed procedure makes use of widely used two-parameter gamma distribution function in a simplified manner. The shape and scale parameters of the distribution are derived using simple analytical procedures given by Bhunya et al. (J Hydrol Eng 8(4):226-230, 2003) for situations where partial data is usually available as in the case with sedimentation studies. The direct sediment graphs are computed by convolution of unit sediment graph with the mobilized sediment. The suitability of the proposed procedure is tested using the temporally observed sediment graph data of seven small watersheds of Piedmont Province of the Potomac River Basin, Washington D.C., USA. The results obtained are compared with the rigorous synthetic procedure of Chen and Kuo (J Hydrol 84:35-54, 1986). The goodness-of-fit in terms of absolute relative error in peak sediment outflow rate and time-to-peak sediment outflow rate between observed and computed sediment graphs by proposed as well as Chen and Kuo method shows that the proposed procedure produces results well comparable and even better than those obtained using Chen and Kuo procedure and therefore can be successfully used for development of SSG for ungauged catchments. It is worth noting here that the proposed procedure is very simple in application as compared to the rigorous procedure of Chen and Kuo and eliminates the restriction on storm duration and incorporates the routing concept which plays an important role in sedimentation. Moreover, since the proposed procedure makes use of probability distribution function, several other suitable distributions can also be explored for derivation of synthetic sediment graphs from ungauged catchments. © 2011 Saudi Society for Geosciences.

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