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The Cadigal, also spelled as Gadigal, are a group of Aboriginal Australians who originally inhabited the area that they called 'Cadi'. Cadigal territory lies south of Port Jackson covering today's Sydney CBD and stretches from South Head to Petersham with part of the southern boundary lying on the Cooks River. The Cadigal language is a derivative of the Darug language.Soon after his arrival at Port Jackson, Governor Arthur Phillip estimated the Indigenous population of the Sydney district at around 1500 people, although other estimates range from as low as 200 to as high as 4000.The Cadigal clan was estimated to have 50-80 people.The Cadigal were coastal people who were dependent on the harbour for providing most of their food. They were one of seven clans living in coastal Sydney who spoke a common language and have become known as the Eora people. ‘Eora’ simply means ‘people’ or ‘of this place’ in their language.The occupation of the Sydney area by the British and the subsequent introduction of European diseases including smallpox decimated the Eora people and their neighbours. The disastrous 1789 smallpox epidemic is estimated to have killed about 50% of Sydney's indigenous population, and it has been claimed that only three Cadigal people were left alive by 1791, although archaeological evidence suggests that some Cadigal people may have escaped to the Concord area and settled there.Part of the Cadigal territory is in the Marrickville local government area of Sydney in 1994 the Marrickville Aboriginal Consultative Committee was established and the Cadigal Wangal peoples website. Wikipedia.

Abouzaid B.,Chouaib Doukkali University | Elarbi Achhab M.,Cadi | Wertz V.,Catholic University of Louvain
European Journal of Control | Year: 2011

The feedback stabilization problem in the presence of nonsymmetrical constraints on both control and its rate is addressed for a class of distributed parameter systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established, under which the constraints are satisfied for autonomous infinitedimensional systems. The approach is developed using the semigroup formulation and the positive invariance concept. The main result allows us to determine some suitable positively invariant sets of admissible initial states, in which the constraints are satisfied, with respect to the asymptotically stable closed-loop system. © 2011 EUCA.

Alaoui I.M.,Cadi
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics | Year: 2015

Imaging and visualization of latent fingerprints on smooth surfaces is not an easy task when the latent finger mark is on smooth and/or high reflecting surfaces. The surface where the fingerprint is located may present many physical and optical constraints, such as roughness, high background fluorescence which may be handled using time-resolved luminescence imaging (Mitchell and Menzel, Proc SPIE 1054:191–195, 1989; Alaoui et al., Forensic Sci Int 152:215–219, 2005). Optical techniques like oblique angle illumination and columnar-thin-film acquisition of fingerprint topology have been successfully used for visualization of fingermarks on smooth glass and mirror surfaces (Alaoui, Time-resolved luminescence imaging and applications. In: Byrnes (ed) Imaging for detection and identification. NATO security through science series. Springer, Netherlands, pp 243–248, 2007). We report preliminary results on the visualization of latent fingerprints on two smooth surfaces (glass and windows aluminum) using columnar thin films (CTF) nanostructures of CaF2 followed by 1,2-indanedione fluorescence (Shaler, J Nanophotonics 5:051509, 2011). The preliminary results are promising. We have been able to visualize fingerprints on glass under dark field measurement after CTF deposition and observation under microscope (Dutta et al., Forensic Sci Int 228:32–37, 2013). Fingerprints on frame windows aluminum were able to be visualized after CTF deposition and 1,2-indanedione fluorescence. These results may open new options in fingerprint visualization and detection using columnar thin films followed by fluorescent reagents. Our preliminary results show that this technique can be useful for latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces. More work is necessary to optimize the CTF deposition process and the chemical post treatment (solution concentration, temperature, humidity, etc.). © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015.

Ouassaid M.,Cadi | Maaroufi M.,Mohammed V University | Cherkaoui M.,Mohammed V University
International Review of Electrical Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper, a solution to the problem of transient stabilization of multimachine power systems is proposed in a multivariable and nonlinear framework. The design method is based on a new power system model. The main characteristic of this model is that interactions between generators and changes in operating conditions are represented by time-varying parameters. Nonlinear decentralized controllers are designed explicitly for the excitation model and turbine governor model. Deviations of terminal voltage and angular frequency are selected as the feedback variables, which make it possible to achieve satisfactory voltage regulation as well as damping capability. The methodology adopted is based on adaptive backstepping design strategy. The proposed stabilizing feedback laws for the power system are shown to be globally asymptotically stable in the context of Lyapunov theory. The tracking errors are shown to be globally uniformly bounded. The proposed technique is illustrated with a two-area benchmark power system. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed control approach is effectual in improving voltage and rotor speed regulation and suppressing all modes of oscillation. The decentralized proposed controller requires only local measurement, which owns highly desirable advantages in cost, reliability and can be easily implemented. © 2010 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Bandara R.,Monash University | Walker J.P.,Monash University | Rudiger C.,Monash University | Merlin O.,Cadi | Merlin O.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2015

Soil moisture plays a key role in most environmental processes, as evaporation and transpiration are heavily dependent on soil moisture variability. While it is one of the few important hydrological variables that can be directly observed, the high spatial and temporal variability makes it difficult to measure globally or even regionally. Reliance is therefore placed on land surface models to predict the evolution of soil moisture using low-resolution soil property information or typical values. But to make predictions with the required accuracy, more reliable and detailed soil parameter data are required than those currently available. This paper demonstrates the ability to retrieve soil hydraulic parameters from near-surface measurements, using Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations disaggregated to 1km resolution for a demonstration area the size of a single SMOS footprint. The disaggregated soil moisture product was first assessed against in-situ soil moisture observations, before testing the retrieval methodology using the disaggregated soil moisture data for individual soil columns co-located with three long-term monitoring sites in the Murrumbidgee Catchment. The retrieval methodology was then applied to the entire 40km×40km demonstration area at 5km spatial resolution. The results suggest that spatially variable soil hydraulic properties exist in the study area, while published soil texture maps show only a single soil type, meaning that a single set of soil hydraulic parameters would normally be used in soil moisture prediction models for this region. Use of a single set of soil hydraulic parameters, rather than the spatially variables ones, was estimated to have an approximate 0.06m3/m3 impact on the soil moisture prediction. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Enas E.A.,Cadi
Indian heart journal | Year: 2011

The underlying disorder in the vast majority of cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is atherosclerosis, for which low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recognized as the first and foremost risk factor. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, popularly called statins, are highly effective and remarkably safe in reducing LDL-C and non-HDL-C levels. Evidence from clinical trials have demonstrated that statin therapy can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death, and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) by 25-50%, depending on the magnitude of LDL-C lowering achieved. Benefits are seen in men and women, young and old, and in people with and without diabetes or prior diagnosis of CVD. Clinical trials comparing standard statin therapy to intensive statin therapy have clearly demonstrated greater benefits in CVD risk reduction (including halting the progression and even reversing coronary atherosclerosis) without any corresponding increase in risk. Numerous outcome trials of intensive statin therapy using atorvastatin 80 mg/d have demonstrated the safety and the benefits of lowering LDL-C to very low levels. This led the USNCEP Guideline Committee to standardize 40 mg/dL as the optimum LDL-C level, above which the CVD risk begins to rise. Recent studies have shown intensive statin therapy can also lower CVD events even in low-risk individuals with LDL-C <110 mg/dL. Because of the heightened risk of CVD in Asian Indians, the LDL-C target is set at 30 mg/dL lower than that recommended by NCEP. Accordingly, the LDL-C goal is < 70 mg/dL for Indians who have CVD, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or chronic kidney disease. Intensive statin therapy is often required in these populations as well as others who require a > or = 50% reduction in LDL-C. Broader acceptance of this lower LDL-C targets and its implementation could reduce the CVD burden in the Indian population by 50% in the next 25 years. Clinical trial data support an extremely favorable benefit-to-risk ratio of intensive statin therapy with some but not all statins. Atorvastatin 80 mg/d is 100 times safer than aspirin 81 mg/d and 10 times safer than diabetic medications. Intensive statin therapy is more effective and safe compared to intensive control of blood sugar or blood pressure in patients with diabetes.

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