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Winnipeg, Canada

Fanella S.,University of Manitoba | Kadkhoda K.,Cadham Provincial Laboratory | Shuel M.,National Microbiology Laboratory | Tsang R.,National Microbiology Laboratory
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Endemic (nonvenereal) syphilis is relatively common in nonindustrialized regions of the world. We describe a case of local transmission in Canada and review tools available for confirming a diagnosis. Improved molecular tools and global clinical awareness are needed to recognize cases of endemic syphilis imported to areas where it is not normally seen.


Wylie J.L.,University of Manitoba | Wylie J.L.,Cadham Provincial Laboratory | Jolly A.M.,Public Health Agency of Canada
BMC Medical Research Methodology | Year: 2013

Background: Respondent driven sampling (RDS) was designed for sampling "hidden" populations and intended as a means of generating unbiased population estimates. Its widespread use has been accompanied by increasing scrutiny as researchers attempt to understand the extent to which the population estimates produced by RDS are, in fact, generalizable to the actual population of interest. In this study we compare two different methods of seed selection to determine whether this may influence recruitment and RDS measures. Methods. Two seed groups were established. One group was selected as per a standard RDS approach of study staff purposefully selecting a small number of individuals to initiate recruitment chains. The second group consisted of individuals self-presenting to study staff during the time of data collection. Recruitment was allowed to unfold from each group and RDS estimates were compared between the groups. A comparison of variables associated with HIV was also completed. Results: Three analytic groups were used for the majority of the analyses-RDS recruits originating from study staff-selected seeds (n = 196); self-presenting seeds (n = 118); and recruits of self-presenting seeds (n = 264). Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated significant differences between the three groups across six of ten sociodemographic and risk behaviours examined. Examination of homophily values also revealed differences in recruitment from the two seed groups (e.g. in one arm of the study sex workers and solvent users tended not to recruit others like themselves, while the opposite was true in the second arm of the study). RDS estimates of population proportions were also different between the two recruitment arms; in some cases corresponding confidence intervals between the two recruitment arms did not overlap. Further differences were revealed when comparisons of HIV prevalence were carried out. Conclusions: RDS is a cost-effective tool for data collection, however, seed selection has the potential to influence which subgroups within a population are accessed. Our findings indicate that using multiple methods for seed selection may improve access to hidden populations. Our results further highlight the need for a greater understanding of RDS to ensure appropriate, accurate and representative estimates of a population can be obtained from an RDS sample. © 2013 Wylie and Jolly; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Zubach V.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Smart G.,Cadham Provincial Laboratory | Ratnam S.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Ratnam S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We have developed a novel microsphere-based genotyping method for 46 mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) types. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR using general primers and typed by hybridization to HPV type-specific probes coupled to sortable microspheres based on the Luminex xMAP technology. Hybridization to each probe was specific for each HPV type without cross-hybridization and sensitive enough to allow typing of HPV contained in clinical specimens. The method was validated with direct sequencing and the Roche Linear Array genotyping method. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Loeb M.,McMaster University | Russell M.L.,University of Calgary | Moss L.,McMaster University | Fonseca K.,University of Calgary | And 10 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Children and adolescents appear to play an important role in the transmission of influenza. Selectively vaccinating youngsters against influenza may interrupt virus transmission and protect those not immunized. Objective: To assess whether vaccinating children and adolescents with inactivated influenza vaccine could prevent influenza in other community members. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized trial involving 947 Canadian children and adolescents aged 36 months to 15 years who received study vaccine and 2326 community members who did not receive the study vaccine in 49 Hutterite colonies in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Follow-up began December 28, 2008, and ended June 23, 2009. Intervention: Children were randomly assigned according to community and in a blinded manner to receive standard dosing of either inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine, which was used as a control. Main Outcome Measures: Confirmed influenza A and B infection using a realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and by measuring serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. Results: The mean rate of study vaccine coverage among eligible participants was 83% (range, 53%-100%) for the influenza vaccine colonies and 79% (range, 50%-100%) for the hepatitis A vaccine colonies. Among nonrecipients, 39 of 1271 (3.1%) in the influenza vaccine colonies and 80 of 1055 (7.6%) in the hepatitis A vaccine colonies had influenza illness confirmed by RT-PCR, for a protective effectiveness of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8%-83%; P=.03). Among all study participants (those who were and those who were not vaccinated), 80 of 1773 (4.5%) in the influenza vaccine colonies and 159 of 1500 (10.6%) in the hepatitis A vaccine colonies had influenza illness confirmed by RT-PCR for an overall protective effectiveness of 59% (95% CI, 5%-82%; P=.04). No serious vaccine adverse events were observed. Conclusion: Immunizing children and adolescents with inactivated influenza vaccine significantly protected unimmunized residents of rural communities against influenza. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00877396. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Mahmud S.M.,University of Manitoba | van Caeseele P.,University of Manitoba | van Caeseele P.,Cadham Provincial Laboratory | Hammond G.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

We conducted a population-based study in Manitoba, Canada, to investigate whether use of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) during the 2008-09 influenza season was associated with subsequent infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic. Data were obtained from a provincewide population-based immunization registry and laboratorybased influenza surveillance system. The test-negative case-control study included 831 case-patients with confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection and 2,479 controls, participants with test results negative for influenza A and B viruses. For the association of TIVreceipt with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, the fully adjusted odds ratio was 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4). Among case-patients, receipt of 2008-09 TIV was associated with a statistically nonsignificant 49% reduction in risk for hospitalization. In agreement with study findings outside Canada, our study in Manitoba indicates that the 2008-09 TIV neither increased nor decreased the risk for infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

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