Delémont, Switzerland
Delémont, Switzerland

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Vila M.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Rohr R.P.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | Rohr R.P.,University of Fribourg | Espinar J.L.,CSIC - Doñana Biological Station | And 6 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2015

Aim: To assess how the magnitude of impacts of non-native plants on species richness of resident plants and animals varies in relation to the traits and phylogenetic position of the non-native as well as characteristics of the invaded site. Location: Global. Methods: Meta-analysis and phylogenetic regressions based on 216 studies were used to examine the effects of 96 non-native plant species on species richness of resident plants and animals while considering differences in non-native species traits (life-form, clonality or vegetative reproduction, and nitrogen-fixing ability) and characteristics of the invaded site (ecosystem type, insularity and climatic region). Results: Plots with non-native plants had lower resident plant (-20.5%) and animal species richness (-26.4%) than paired uninvaded control plots. Nitrogen-fixing ability, followed by phylogeny and clonality were the best predictors of the magnitude of impacts of non-native plants on native plant species richness. Non-nitrogen-fixing and clonal non-native plants reduced species richness more than nitrogen-fixing and non-clonal invaders. However, life-form and characteristics of the invaded sites did not appear to be important. In the case of resident animal species richness, only the phylogenetic position of the non-native and whether invaded sites were islands or not influenced impacts, with a more pronounced decrease found on islands than mainlands. Main conclusions: The presence of a phylogenetic signal on the magnitude of the impacts of non-native plants on resident plant and animal richness indicates that closely related non-native plants tend to have similar impacts. This suggests that the magnitude of the impact might depend on shared plant traits not explored in our study. Our results therefore support the need to include the phylogenetic similarity of non-native plants to known invaders in risk assessment analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Essl F.,University of Vienna | Essl F.,Stellenbosch University | Biro K.,University of Pannonia | Brandes D.,TU Braunschweig | And 27 more authors.
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Common ragweed) that are relevant to understanding its ecology. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, and history, conservation, impacts and management. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a monoecious, wind-pollinated, annual herb native to North America whose height varies from 10 cm to 2.5 m, according to environmental conditions. It has erect, branched stems and pinnately lobed leaves. Spike-like racemes of male capitula composed of staminate (male) florets terminate the stems, while cyme-like clusters of pistillate (female) florets are arranged in groups in the axils of main and lateral stem leaves. Seeds require prolonged chilling to break dormancy. Following seedling emergence in spring, the rate of vegetative growth depends on temperature, but development occurs over a wide thermal range. In temperate European climates, male and female flowers are produced from summer to early autumn (July to October). Ambrosia artemisiifolia is sensitive to freezing. Late spring frosts kill seedlings and the first autumn frosts terminate the growing season. It has a preference for dry soils of intermediate to rich nutrient level. Ambrosia artemisiifolia was introduced into Europe with seed imports from North America in the 19th century. Since World War II, it has become widespread in temperate regions of Europe and is now abundant in open, disturbed habitats as a ruderal and agricultural weed. Recently, the North American ragweed leaf beetle (Ophraella communa) has been detected in southern Switzerland and northern Italy. This species appears to have the capacity to substantially reduce growth and seed production of A. artemisiifolia. In heavily infested regions of Europe, A. artemisiifolia causes substantial crop-yield losses and its copious, highly allergenic pollen creates considerable public health problems. There is a consensus among models that climate change will allow its northward and uphill spread in Europe. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a monoecious, wind-pollinated, annual herb that was introduced into Europe with seed imports from North America in the 19th century and is now abundant as a ruderal and agricultural weed. In Europe, it can cause substantial crop-yield losses and its copious, highly allergenic pollen creates considerable public health problems. The consensus among models is that climate change will allow its northward and up-hill spread in Europe. © 2015 British Ecological Society.


Hinz H.L.,CABI Switzerland | Diaconu A.,Romanian Institute of Biological Research
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2015

Lepidium draba (Brassicaceae) is a clonal herb, originating from Eurasia, which is invasive in North America. A classical biological control project was initiated in 2001, and the gall-forming weevil Ceutorhynchus cardariae was prioritized as a candidate agent. We studied its biology and field host range between 2003 and 2014 in the laboratory and a common garden in Switzerland and in the field in Romania. Ceutorhynchus cardariae is a univoltine to bivoltine species. In Switzerland, oviposition usually started at the beginning of March and can occur at temperatures as low as 2.5°C. Galls are formed on stems, leaf stalks and midribs of L. draba rosettes and bolting plants. Gall size increased with an increasing number of larvae per gall. The three larval instars feed inside the galls and leave the plant to pupate in the soil once mature. In Switzerland, development from egg to adult took about 12 weeks in spring. Adults emerged from May to July. After a brief feeding period, adults aestivate. From late summer, feeding recommenced and females may oviposit, forming a partial second generation. Eggs and all larval instars can be found in galls throughout winter. The rate of larval ectoparasitism reached 78%, while endoparasitism was low with a maximum of 2.3%. Lepidium draba populations differed in their suitability for development (number of C. cardariae produced), indicating that effectiveness of C. cardariae - in case released - may be variable. In the field, we observed that gall formation by C. cardariae can severely stunt or even kill shoots. Investigations on the field host range of C. cardariae indicated that only the closely related Lepidium campestre may act as an alternative host for the weevil in Europe. Host-specificity tests are underway to determine its environmental safety before field release in North America is being considered. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Shaw R.,CABI UK | Schaffner U.,CABI Switzerland | Marchante E.,University of Coimbra
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2016

After a difficult start, classical biological control of weeds is becoming recognized as an option for management of invasive plants in European Union (EU) Member States with intentional releases in three countries over the past 5 years. Many European countries are benefitting from the presence of Stenopelmus rufinasus, the azolla weevil, which has been accidentally introduced to the region. However, the UK experience with the official release of the psyllid Aphalara itadori against Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and the subsequent release of the rust Puccinia komarovii var glanduliferae against Impatiens glandulifera showed the regulatory framework that could be followed by EU Member States. This process was followed in advance of the subsequent release of Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, a specific Australian bud-galling wasp, against the invasive Acacia longifolia in Portugal. Soon the case of Ophraella communa, another accidental introduction that is severely limiting Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations, will influence affected countries, some of which have been uninterested in this technique until now, to consider the advantages and disadvantages of classical biocontrol. The future looks bright for classical weed biocontrol and the EU Regulation on Invasive Species should further aid this situation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2016 OEPP/EPPO


Ko K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hou M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Babendreier D.,CABI Switzerland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2014

Trichogramma species and strains differ significantly in host specificity and performance. Nine Trichogramma strains, six of them collected from paddy fields in the Greater Mekong Subregion, were evaluated for performance on eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), in both laboratory and field tests to determine potential Trichogramma strains that can be used in an inundative release in an integrated pest management program. In the laboratory glass vial tests, all strains showed higher parasitism rates on 0 -24-h eggs than on the two older age groups (24-48 and 48-72 h). Wasp emergence rate was also higher from parasitized 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs, while Trichogramma immature duration was significantly prolonged on 0-24-h striped stem borer eggs. Parasitism rates differed among Trichogramma strains, with Trichogramma chilonis Ishii CJ strain showing significantly higher parasitism rate than any other strains. In the field tests, parasitism of sentinel striped stem borer eggs by Trichogramma strains released at 50,000,100,000, and 200,000 wasps per hectare was low, with marginal yet significant differences between strains. The highest parasitism was achieved by T. chilonis CJ strain at the high and medium release rates. Hence, it can be concluded that T. chilonis CJ strain released at 100,000 wasps per hectare may be a cost-effective control tactic for field releases targeting striped stem borer. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.


Wang Z.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He K.-L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang F.,Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forest science | Lu X.,Jilin Agricultural University | Babendreier D.,CABI Switzerland
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Corn (Zea mays L., Poaceae) is ranked first as food crop in planting area and in total yield production in China. Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, is the most destructive pest of corn in China, causing 6-9 million tons of yield loss per year on average. Trichogramma has been released for control of Asian corn borer at large scale since the 1970's, partly triggered by the fact that Trichogramma dendrolimi can be successfully mass reared on eggs of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi. Eggs of different hosts, such as Eri-silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini, A. pernyi, the Rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella and also artificial host eggs were tested and successfully used to mass-rear various Trichogramma species in China since then. The mass production technology and release technique of Trichogramma have been greatly improved in recent years making Trichogramma production and field application more practical and cost efficient. Nowadays, nearly 4 million hectares of corn are treated with T. dendrolimi, Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma ostriniae annually, mainly in North-east China. Large ecological and economic benefits have been achieved in areas where Trichogramma have been released continuously for many years. This includes an increase of natural populations of Trichogramma and other natural enemies in cornfields, the avoidance of any insecticide treatments in corn, a reduction in mycotoxin contamination and overall higher yields. The release of Trichogramma for controlling Asian corn borer and other lepidopteran pests became one of the key measures in corn IPM in China. Trichogramma applications combined with other non-chemical control measures for corn insect pests IPM began a new era in China as the new concept of "Public Plant Protection, Green Plant Protection" was put forward in 2006 as the guideline for plant protection in China. The future prospects and challenges of Trichogramma application are also discussed in this review. © 2013.


Ko K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Hou M.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Babendreier D.,CABI Switzerland | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2015

Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by <30% in comparison with the control, and were thus ranked as harmless. Although insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | CABI Switzerland, Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

Planthopper-targeting insecticides, pymetrozine, thiamethoxam, buprofezin, and nitenpyram, were tested under laboratory conditions for toxicity to adults and immatures of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, using standard tests described by International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). In the dry film residue test, all insecticides resulted in >90% mortality in T. chilonis adults and were ranked as moderately harmful. Persistent toxicity tests revealed that nitenpyram was short-lived and the other three insecticides were of slightly persistent toxicity to the wasp adults. Effects of the insecticides on egg, larval, and prepupal stages of T. chilonis were investigated with striped stem borer as host. At the three stages of T. chilonis (within the host egg), all the insecticides reduced parasitism rate, but nitenpyram and pymetrozine applied at egg stage, buprofezin and nitenpyram at larval stage, and buprofezin and thiamethoxam at prepupal stage of T. chilonis reduced parasitism by <30% in comparison with the control, and were thus ranked as harmless. Although insecticide treatment of the three immature stages of T. chilonis all reduced wasp emergence from host eggs, only thiamethoxam applied at larval stage and buprofezin at prepupal stage resulted in >30% reduction in emergence rate as compared with the control and were categorized as harmful. Immature duration of T. chilonis was only significantly extended by nitenpyram applied to egg stage than the control. Sex ratio of emerged wasps was not affected by the treatment to immature stages. The data are of significance for IPM programs incorporating inundative release of T. chilonis for control of lepidopteran rice pests where there is heavy co-occurrence of planthoppers.

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