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Rees R.W.,University of Bath | Flood J.,CABI Europe UK | Hasan Y.,Bah Lias Research Station | Wills M.A.,University of Bath | Cooper R.M.,University of Bath
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Basidiospores are implicated in the distribution and genetic diversity of Ganoderma boninense, cause of basal stem rot (BSR) and upper stem rot (USR) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Measurement of aerial basidiospores within plantations in Sumatra showed continuous and high production over 24h (range c. 2-11000sporesm -3) with maximum release during early evening. Basidiospores applied to cut surfaces of fronds, peduncles and stems germinated in situ. Equivalent, extensive wounds are created during plantation harvesting and management and represent potential sites for formation of infective heterokaryons following mating of haploid basidiospore germlings. Use of spore-sized micro-beads showed that basidiospores could be pulled up to 10cm into severed xylem vessels, where they are relatively protected from dehydration, UV irradiation and competing microflora. Diversity of isolates from five locations on two plantations was assessed by RAMS fingerprinting. Isolates from within individual palms with USR were identical and represent single infections, but different USR infections had unique band patterns and revealed separate infections. Some BSR-affected trees contained more than one isolate, and thus had multiple infections. There was one example of adjacent BSR palms with the same isolate, indicating vegetative spread, but there were no identical genets from BSR infections and adjacent fallen palms. Isolate diversity was as great within a plantation as between plantations. It is evident that basidiospores play a major role in spread and genetic variability of G. boninense. Evidence for direct basidiospore infection via cut fronds, indirectly through roots via colonized debris and less frequently, infection by vegetative, clonal spread is considered. © 2011 University of Bath. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.

Damm U.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Cannon P.F.,CABI Europe UK | Woudenberg J.H.C.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Crous P.W.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | And 2 more authors.
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2012

Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum. © CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Damm U.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Cannon P.F.,CABI Europe UK | Woudenberg J.H.C.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Johnston P.R.,Landcare Research | And 6 more authors.
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2012

Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. © CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Cannon P.F.,CABI Europe UK | Damm U.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Johnston P.R.,Landcare Research | Weir B.S.,Landcare Research
Studies in Mycology | Year: 2012

A review is provided of the current state of understanding of Colletotrichum systematics, focusing on species-level data and the major clades. The taxonomic placement of the genus is discussed, and the evolution of our approach to species concepts and anamorph-teleomorph relationships is described. The application of multilocus technologies to phylogenetic analysis of Colletotrichum is reviewed, and selection of potential genes/loci for barcoding purposes is discussed. Host specificity and its relation to speciation and taxonomy is briefly addressed. A short review is presented of the current status of classification of the species clusters that are currently without comprehensive multilocus analyses, emphasising the orbiculare and destructivum aggregates. The future for Colletotrichum biology will be reliant on consensus classification and robust identification tools. In support of these goals, a Subcommission on Colletotrichum has been formed under the auspices of the International Commission on Taxonomy of Fungi, which will administer a carefully curated barcode database for sequence-based identification of species within the BioloMICS web environment. © CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre.

Bridge P.D.,CABI Europe UK | Spooner B.M.,Mycology Section
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2012

To date over 1 000 non-lichenized fungal species have been recorded by collection or isolation from Antarctica, and additional taxa are now being identified by molecular studies. The number and variety of species recorded so far suggest that the fungi may be the most diverse biota in the Antarctic, and the additional taxa identified by molecular surveys suggest that the true diversity may be far greater than is currently estimated. Fungi occupy many different ecological niches in the Antarctic, and their significance in these niches is only poorly understood. The majority of species described from the region have been identified as members of broadly cosmopolitan groups, but there is some evidence for both endemic strains and populations. This review brings together the current broad systematic and ecological findings for the non-lichenized Antarctic fungi. © 2012.

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