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Egham, United Kingdom

Shaw R.,CABI UK | Schaffner U.,CABI Switzerland | Marchante E.,University of Coimbra
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2016

After a difficult start, classical biological control of weeds is becoming recognized as an option for management of invasive plants in European Union (EU) Member States with intentional releases in three countries over the past 5 years. Many European countries are benefitting from the presence of Stenopelmus rufinasus, the azolla weevil, which has been accidentally introduced to the region. However, the UK experience with the official release of the psyllid Aphalara itadori against Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and the subsequent release of the rust Puccinia komarovii var glanduliferae against Impatiens glandulifera showed the regulatory framework that could be followed by EU Member States. This process was followed in advance of the subsequent release of Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, a specific Australian bud-galling wasp, against the invasive Acacia longifolia in Portugal. Soon the case of Ophraella communa, another accidental introduction that is severely limiting Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations, will influence affected countries, some of which have been uninterested in this technique until now, to consider the advantages and disadvantages of classical biocontrol. The future looks bright for classical weed biocontrol and the EU Regulation on Invasive Species should further aid this situation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2016 OEPP/EPPO Source


Egonyu J.P.,National Coffee Research Institute | Baguma J.,National Coffee Research Institute | Ogari I.,National Coffee Research Institute | Ahumuza G.,National Coffee Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2015

The coffee twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff) is an economically important pest of Robusta coffee in Uganda. In this study, a formicid ant, Plagiolepis sp., found in X. compactus galleries at the National Coffee Research Institute in 2014, was evaluated for potential to provide biological control of the twig borer. In a Petri dish feeding bioassay, Plagiolepis sp. preyed on all stages of X. compactus except adults within 24 h. In field bioassays where Plagiolepis sp. was caged over X. compactus-infested twigs for one month in muslin sleeves, the predator colonized pest galleries and eliminated all life stages of X. compactus as opposed to the untreated control. In a survey of Plagiolepis sp. in 11 districts of eastern, central and western Uganda, the ant was present in nine of the districts with highest levels of colonization (over 18%) of X. compactus galleries in Luwero district in the central Lake Victoria crescent agroecological zone. These results appear to confirm that Plagiolepis sp. is an indigenous predator of X. compactus which invades pest galleries and feeds on the pest in the field. For prospective utilization of Plagiolepis sp. as a biological control agent of X. compactus, studies on the biology of Plagiolepis sp., its mass rearing protocols and factors favoring its proliferation in the field are highly recommended. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Chowdappa P.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Chethana C.S.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Pant R.P.,National Research Center for Orchids | Bridge P.D.,CABI UK
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The causal organism responsible for severe outbreaks of orchid anthracnose in India, which affectes leaves, petioles and blooms, is not clearly established. Ten Colletotrichum isolates recovered from different orchid species in the Sikkim state were characterized based on morphological and a multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis of the rDNA-ITS region (ITS), partial actin (ACT) and glyceraldehyde- 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequences. Phylogeny inferred from combined datasets of ACT, ITS and GAPDH revealed two groups, representing Colletotrichum cymbidiicola and C. cliviae. Cultural and morphological characters are presented for these two species. Pathogenicity assays confirmed that both species isolated from orchids are the causal agents of anthracnose. The occurrence of C. cymbidiicola and C. cliviae is reported for the first time on orchids in India. Source


Hibbett D.S.,Clark University | Ohman A.,Clark University | Glotzer D.,Clark University | Nuhn M.,Clark University | And 3 more authors.
Fungal Biology Reviews | Year: 2011

Fungal taxonomy seeks to discover, describe, and classify all species of Fungi and provide tools for their identification. About 100,000 fungal species have been described so far, but it has been estimated that there may be from 1.5 to 5.1. million extant fungal species. Over the last decade, about 1200 new species of Fungi have been described in each year. At that rate, it may take up to 4000 y to describe all species of Fungi using current specimen-based approaches. At the same time, the number of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) discovered in ecological surveys has been increasing dramatically. We analyzed ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences in the GenBank nucleotide database and classified them as "environmental" or "specimen-based" We obtained 91,225 sequences, of which 30,217 (33. %) were of environmental origin. Clustering at an average 93. % identity in extracted ITS1 and ITS2 sequences yielded 16,969 clusters, including 6230 (37. %) clusters with only environmental sequences, and 2223 (13. %) clusters with both environmental and specimen-based sequences. In 2008 and 2009, the number of purely environmental clusters deposited in GenBank exceeded the number of species described based on specimens, and this does not include the huge number of unnamed MOTUs discovered in pyrosequencing studies. To enable communication about fungal diversity, there is a pressing need to develop classification systems based on environmental sequences. Assigning Latin binomials to MOTUs would promote their integration with specimen-based taxonomic databases, whereas the use of numerical codes for MOTUs would perpetuate a disconnect with the taxonomic literature. MOTUs could be formally named under the existing International Code of Botanical Nomenclature if the concept of a nomenclatural type was expanded to include environmental samples or illustrations of sequence chromatograms (or alignments). Alternatively, a "candidate species" category could be created for Fungi, based on the candidatus taxon status employed by microbiologists. © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Source


David J.,Royal Horticultural Society Garden Wisley | Garrity G.M.,Michigan State University | Greuter W.,Free University of Berlin | Hawksworth D.L.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 12 more authors.
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

A set of terms recommended for use in facilitating communication in biological nomenclature is presented as a table showing broadly equivalent terms used in the traditional Codes of nomenclature. These terms are intended to help those engaged in naming across organism groups, and are the result of the work of the International Committee on Bionomenclature, whose aim is to promote harmonisation and communication amongst those naming life on Earth. © John David et al. Source

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