CABI Bioscience

Egham, United Kingdom

CABI Bioscience

Egham, United Kingdom
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Shah R.,CABI Bioscience | Anis-ur-Rehman,Agricultural Research Institute | Shah I.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

An extensive survey in tobacco growing areas of district Charsadda and Mardan of NWFP, Pakistan, was conducted and 30 localities were visited. Two termite species, Microtermes unicolor Snyder and M. obesi Holmgren, were recorded infesting tobacco crop in Charsadda and Mardan districts of NWFP, Pakistan. The percentage infestation due to Microtermes was 6.01 ± 1.7 percent in district Charsadda and 3.40 ± 2.0 percent in district Mardan. Whereas, M. obesi infested plants were 1.91 ± 1.1 and 0.83 ± 0.7 percent in Charsadda and Mardan, respectively. M. unicolor was the predominant species and infested greater number of tobacco plants (77.4 percent) than M. obesi. A total of 12.15 percent tobacco plants were found infested in both the districts by both the species. No infestation was recorded in Charsadda and Mardan tehsils. In both districts (Charsadda and Mardan), 20 and 7.5 percent plots were found infested by M. unicolor and M. obesi, respectively.

Mena-Portales J.,Institute Ecologia y Sistematica | Hernandez-Restrepo M.,Fungal Biodiversity Center | Hernandez-Restrepo M.,University of Pretoria | Guarro J.,Rovira i Virgili University | And 2 more authors.
Nova Hedwigia | Year: 2016

Four new species of Sporidesmium complex collected on plant debris in different protected areas of the Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated. Penzigomyces basiacutus is characterized by its obclavate to rostrate conidia with a narrowly obconic-truncate basal cell and verruculose apical cell. Sporidesmium corniculatum is distinguished from other species of the genus by its occasional furcate and only transversely septate conidia and Sporidesmium tunicatum by its obclavate to rostrate, verrucose conidia with an apical mucilaginous sheath tunica. Stanjehughesia obclavorostrata is distinguished by its obclavate to rostrate conidia with the basal cell sometimes darker than the rest. © 2016 J. Cramer in Gebr.

Cabarroi Hernandez M.,University of Habana | Johnston P.R.,Landcare Research | Minter D.W.,CABI Bioscience
Willdenowia | Year: 2014

Knowledge of Rhytismataceae (Ascomycota) in Cuba is inadequate; many specimens have been collected and identified by foreign specialists and many types are mostly preserved in reference collections of other countries. Following extensive field and herbarium studies, nine species of Rhytismataceae are reported, discussed and illustrated from Cuba, of which three: Coccomyces leptosporus, C. tesselatus and Lophodermium mangiferae are new for this country. Six other species: Coccomyces clusiae, C. limitatus, Lophodermium australe, L. platyplacum, Marthamyces quadrifidus and Terriera minor, which had been reported previously, are now confirmed. New host records for some species are also presented. Fruit bodies and spores, as well as ecology of the species included, are described. An identification key to the accepted species in Cuba is provided and host organisms are cited. © 2014 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.

Woodcock B.A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Edwards A.R.,University of Reading | Lawson C.S.,University of Reading | Westbury D.B.,University of Reading | And 6 more authors.
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2010

This study focuses on the restoration of chalk grasslands over a 6-year period and tests the efficacy of two management practices, hay spreading and soil disturbance, in promoting this process for phytophagous beetles. Restoration success for the beetles, measured as similarity to target species-rich chalk grassland, was not found to be influenced by either management practice. In contrast, restoration success for the plants did increase in response to hay spreading management. Although the presence of suitable host plants was considered to dictate the earliest point at which phytophagous beetles could successfully colonized, few beetle species colonized as soon as their host plants became established. Morphological characteristics and feeding habits of 27 phytophagous beetle species were therefore tested to identify factors that limited their colonization and persistence. The lag time between host plant establishment and colonization was greatest for flightless beetles. Beetles with foliage-feeding larvae both colonized at slower rates than seed-, stem-, or root-feeding species and persisted within the swards for shorter periods. Although the use of hay spreading may benefit plant communities during chalk grassland restoration, it did not directly benefit phytophagous beetles. Without techniques for overcoming colonization limitation for invertebrate taxa, short-term success of restoration may be limited to the plants only. © 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Shah R.,CABI Bioscience | Hamid F.,CABI Bioscience | Poswal M.A.,CABI Bioscience
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2012

Alcidodes porrectirostris is first time reported from Pakistan. Adults lay eggs in young green fruits of walnut during first and second week of May. First and second instar larvae feed on the green skin/flesh and the third instar bore through the husk/shell and reach the kernel of the fruit. At this time most of the infested fruits drop to the ground. Larval period lasts for 45 ± 5.2 days. Larvae start pupation inside the fallen fruits by early July and the pupal period last for 14 ± 2.7 days. Adults start emerging while still inside the fruits in the last week of July and early August. Fruit fall due to weevil infestation starts from middle of May and continue to the end of July, most fruits fall during the third week of June. All the developmental stages (larvae, pupae and adults) have been found inside the fallen fruits. Development of the weevil has been delayed by two weeks at higher elevations (8000 ft). A species of ants was observed feeding on larvae and pupae of the weevil. A bacterial infection has killed 20% larvae and 5% pupae. A fungus was also found infesting adult weevils. Integrated management would include collection and disposal of the fallen fruits by burying them under 2 feet of compact soil, and conservation of the biocontrol agents found in the valley.

Shah R.,CABI Bioscience | Ahmed S.,CABI Bioscience | Poswal A.,CABI Bioscience
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

Seasonal dynamics of insect pests and their natural enemies in cabbage and cauliflower ecosystems were recorded in Balochistan (Pakistan). Myzus persicae and B. brassicae on cabbage had a peak at the end of July and October, respectively. Plutella xylostela infestation on cabbage started soon after transplantation and reached the highest number of 16.1 ± 1.6 larvae per plant by November. At Loralai, Plutella xylostela infestation on cauliflower had a peak density of 3.9 ± 0.6 larvae/plant during early July, whereas Aleyrodes proletella and Tetranychus urticae adult density was 3.7 ± 1.3 and 32.2 ± 4.1 per leaf, respectively. A high rate of Myzus persicae parasitism by Aphidius colemani (90.2 ± 5.6%) and Brevicoryne brassicae by Diaeretiella rapae (80.5 ± 6.8%) was found by end of November. Plutella xylostela parasitism by Diadegma sp. did not exceed 8.1 ± 0.9% throughout the season in cabbage. Chrysoperla carnea and Syrphid fly larvae on cabbage first appeared in June. No Diaeretiella rapae, Diadegma sp., C. carnea or Syrphid fly were recorded from cauliflower at either location.

Shah R.,CABI Bioscience | Poswal M.A.,CABI Bioscience
Journal of Entomological Research | Year: 2013

Twenty varieties of cherry grown at Kalam Summer Station were screened for resistance to D. auraria. Varieties, Anella Durone, Williams Favourate, Sweat Heart and Durone - I, had the lowest fruit infestation (damaged fruits) (≤ 5%) recorded early in the season; however, no larvae were found inside the fruits. Magda, Sasha, Colney and Lapins had the highest fruit infestation (≥ 20%); Lapins had infested fruits only on the first sampling date. An "attract and kill" management strategy was used for D. auraria and baited bowl traps with attractants (half-rotten fruit and Trichlorofon) were developed. Bowl traps with melon attracted more adults compared to banana. The additive (raw sugar) significantly reduced the bowl trap's efficacy of attracting D. auraria adults regardless of whether melon or banana was used. A bowl trap with melon and 3-5 g of Trichlorofon is, therefore, recommended for the management of the fruit flies in cherry with a frequency of 20 traps per 100 plants. Installing of traps should be initiated from first-second week of May (just before the fruits starts changing color).

PubMed | CABI Bioscience
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oecologia | Year: 2014

The effects of root herbivory on a tephritid seed predator (Terellia ruficauda) and its parasitoids were investigated. Soil fauna were manipulated by insecticide treatment; host plant (Cirsium palustre) phenology and the oviposition behaviour of both tephritid and parasitoids (Pteromalus elevatus and Torymus chloromerus) recorded. Although insecticide-treated (and hence reduced root herbivory) plants had larger flowerheads, population abundances of both tephritids and parasitoids were greater on thistle plants subjected to root herbivory. Percentage parasitism was similar in both treatments. Root herbivory is thought to enhance the nutrient quality of plants and this may have resulted in the tephritid preferentially feeding on thistles whose roots had been attacked. Parasitoids on these plants were probably affected by a combination of increased plant attractivity (as for the tephritids), smaller flowerheads aiding ovipositor entry and more tephritid hosts being present. This is the first study to show that root herbivores, through plant-mediated interactions, can affect seed herbivores and also, albeit indirectly through the host, natural enemy trophic levels.

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