Cabarceno Park

Cantabria, Spain

Cabarceno Park

Cantabria, Spain

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PubMed | Cabarceno Park, SaBio IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM, University of León, Linköping University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The development of a species-specific conservation protocol that involves artificial insemination with frozen semen needs to validate an effective methodology for freezing semen. Colloid centrifugation has been suggested and widely applied as an effective tool for selecting animal spermatozoa for artificial breeding. The objective of the present study was to compare different methods of centrifugation, single layer using Androcoll-Bear and Percoll and double layer using PureSperm 100 (in two different discontinuous gradients 40%-80% and 45%-90%), for the selection of fresh brown bear sperm samples. In the before freezing group, all selected samples showed a higher progressive motility and viability (except Percoll for motility 43.0 5.3 [P < 0.05]); all colloids except PureSperm 45/90% rendered samples with fewer damaged acrosomes. In the after thawing group, all tested centrifugation colloids showed a good capacity to decrease the number of damaged acrosomes. Furthermore, PureSperm treatment (45/90%) resulted in an increase in apoptotic-like changes not only immediately after thawing but also after the incubation test, leading us to suggest that this gradient could induce some kind of deleterious effects on the sperm samples. On the other hand, PureSperm treatment (40/80%) yielded a quality preservation capacity similar to Androcoll-Bear in number of damaged acrosomes, different relative to the control (control, 5.3 0.6; PureSperm 80, 2.0 0.3; Androcoll, 2.1 0.9 [P < 0.05]) but a decrease in the number of viable spermatozoa recovered after thawing relative to the control (control, 21.2 3.1; PureSperm 80, 13.7 2.7 [P < 0.05]). In conclusion, Androcoll-Bear constitutes a useful tool for handling of brown bear ejaculates owing to its simple handling and procedure with a reliable sperm selection and freezability. This colloid yielded an improvement in several sperm parameters in brown bear frozen-thawed semen; the selected spermatozoa of fresh samples with this colloid showed a better resistance to freezing compared with the control sample not only for motility but also for viability.


de Paz P.,University of León | Alvarez-Rodriguez M.,University of León | Nicolas M.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2012

In order to establish a semen bank for the endangered Cantabrian brown bear, we tested five glycerol concentrations and three freezing rates for electroejaculated semen. Electroejaculation was performed on nine males. Semen was diluted in TES-Tris-Fructose (20% egg yolk, 2% EDTA, 1% Equex) with 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% or 10% glycerol and frozen at -10, -20 or -40°C/min. Before and after cryopreservation, samples were analysed for motility (CASA), viability and acrosomal status (flow cytometry). Pre-freezing results showed that glycerol concentration had no significant effect on total motility or progressive motility, but it significantly decreased VCL, ALH, viability and acrosomal status (p<0.05). After thawing, sperm motility was higher at extender with 4%, 6% and 8% glycerol, but only at 4% and 6% glycerol for viability and acrosomal status. For 4% and 6% glycerol, freezing rates did not have significant effects. The curve fitting gave an estimate of the optimal glycerol concentration, with all the optimal values for every parameter between 6% and 7% glycerol falling. We propose using 6% glycerol and a freezing velocity of -20°C/min for freezing brown bear ejaculated spermatozoa. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Alvarez-Rodriguez M.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | Anel-Lopez L.,University of León | Martinez-Rodriguez C.,University of León | And 4 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2013

Egg yolk low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and soybean lecithin were evaluated as replacements for egg yolk in extenders used for the cryopreservation of brown-bear spermatozoa. The motility, viability and acrosomal status of post-thawed spermatozoa were analysed, and an egg-yolk extender was used as a control. The total antioxidant capacity of these extenders was tested. Soybean lecithin showed an effect that was dependent on the soybean concentration (2%, 3.5% and 5%) and source (Type A: 24% l-α-phosphatidylcholine, and Type B: 14-23% l-α-phosphatidylcholine). Only semen cryopreserved with 5% Type A soybean exhibited a sperm motility similar to that of semen cryopreserved in egg-yolk-based extender after thawing, although the sperm viability and acrosome status were not as high. Semen frozen in an extender containing LDL (10-15%) exhibited improved sperm viability in comparison with the control, but sperm motility was lower. The LDL-based extender exhibited a higher anti-oxidant activity than the egg-yolk extender and soy lecithin-based extenders. The extenders with higher anti-oxidant activity showed improvements in frozen sperm viability but lower semen motility. These results indicate that soybean lecithin did not have the same protective effect as egg yolk during the freezing of brown-bear spermatozoa but suggest that LDL (10-15%) could be a useful substitute for egg yolk in these extenders. © 2013 CSIRO.


Nicolas M.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | Borragan S.,Cabarceno Park | Martinez-Pastor F.,University of León | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

Centrifugation is a crucial procedure in sperm cryopreservation protocols of brown bear (Ursus arctos), because the semen must be processed to increase sperm concentration and/or clean urine-contaminated samples. The efficacy of three media for centrifugation (Maxifreeze [IMV technologies, L'Aigle, France], Cushion Fluid Equine (Minitübe, Tiefenbach, Germany), and PureSperm [Nidacon, Gothenburg, Sweden]) on the quality of bear spermatozoa was evaluated. In experiment one, two cushioned media used for protecting against mechanical stress during centrifugation were analyzed. In experiment two, a density gradient based on PureSperm was assessed in relation to the maximum retrieval and the quality of fresh spermatozoa, and the freezability of the spermatozoa selected in this density gradient was studied in experiment three. Finally, the selection of frozen-thawed sperm using PureSperm was analyzed in experiment four. Our results indicate that the use of dense isotonic cushion solutions (Maxifreeze, Cushion Fluid Equine) in centrifugation did not improve the quality of recovered spermatozoa compared with standard centrifugation. However, a density gradient prepared with PureSperm improved the quality of spermatozoa in fresh semen and frozen-thawed semen, but the spermatozoa selected from the fresh sample with this density gradient did not show a better resistance to freezing with this density gradient in comparison with the control sample. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Nicolas M.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | Gomes-Alves S.,University of León | Mata-Campuzano M.,University of León | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to determine how the extender and dilution ratio used during centrifugation affect bear spermatozoa quality before and after freezing-thawing. Semen was collected from 15 brown bears by electroejaculation. In experiment 1, semen was divided into five aliquots and diluted using one of the following extenders: Tris-citric-glucose (TCG), Tris-citric-glucose-3% BSA, Tris-citric-glucose-1% egg yolk or CaninePro. In experiment 2, semen was divided into five aliquots and diluted 1:1, 1:4, 1:8 or 1:16 (semen:extender) with Tris-citric-glucose. In both experiments, one aliquot was left undiluted and it was used as a control. All the aliquots were centrifuged at 600×g for 6 min and frozen. Samples were analysed by post-thawing for motility (CASA) and, by flow cytometry, for viability (YO-PRO-1), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC/PI) and mitochondrial status (JC-1). CaninePro rendered the highest motility with respect to the undiluted control (total motility, 53.1% vs. 38.5%, P < 0.001), and CaninePro and TCG significantly increased the percentage of viable and acrosome-intact spermatozoa (43.2 and 43.4, respectively, vs. 39.4, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, dilution 1:4 yielded the highest value of total motility (78.8 vs. 67.2, P < 0.05) and proportion of spermatozoa with intact membrane and acrosome (64.5 vs. 54.4, P < 0.01). In general, diluting 1:4 or 1:8 brown bear semen prior to centrifugation improved the motility and acrosome status of the thawed spermatozoa. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Alvarez-Rodriguez M.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | Gomes-Alves S.,University of León | Borragan S.,Cabarceno Park | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

We have tested several freezing protocols for brown bear semen, modifying the time when glycerol was added (before and after cooling to 5 °C). No differences were found among protocols, indicating a good tolerance of brown bear semen to glycerol. This finding indicates that freezing protocols for brown bear semen could be modified to fit practical solutions which would facilitate preparation of the seminal samples in the field with the addition of glycerol at ambient temperature. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Anel L.,University of León | Gomes-Alves S.,University of León | Alvarez M.,University of León | Borragan S.,Cabarceno Park | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

The improvement of freezing extenders is critical when defining sperm cryopreservation protocols for wild species, in order to create germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of additives (Equex Paste and EDTA) supplementation, egg-yolk (10 and 20%) and glycerol (4 and 8%) concentrations and extender osmolality (300 and 320 mOsm/kg) on the post-thawing quality of brown bear semen. Semen was obtained from 20 adult males by electroejaculation, and centrifugated individually (600 × g for 6 min). The pellets were diluted 1:1 in the corresponding extender TTF (TES-Tris-Fructose with the aforementioned variants) and cooled to 5 °C. Then, it was diluted down to 100 × 106 spz/mL, loaded in 0.25 mL straws and frozen at -20°C/min. After thawing (in water at 65 °C for 6s), the semen samples were assessed for motility (CASA), viability (SYBR-14 with propidium iodide), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC with propidium iodide) and mitochondrial activity (JC-1). Extender supplementation with additives rendered significantly higher results for these sperm parameters. Comparing the two percentages of egg yolk, 20% egg yolk showed the highest motility results, percentages of viable spermatozoa and viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome. No differences were detected among samples frozen using 4 or 8% glycerol. For extender osmolality, 300 mOsm/kg showed higher values of VAP, VCL, VSL, and ALH than 320 mOsm/kg. Based on the best performance of sperm motility, viability and acrosome status, we conclude that the most suitable extender to cryopreserve brown bear spermatozoa was TTF adjusted to 300 mOsm/kg, supplemented with 20% egg yolk, 4-8% glycerol, and the additives 1% Equex paste and 2% EDTA. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Cabarceno Park and University of León
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate different bovine and canine commercial semen extenders for cryopreservation of brown bear ejaculates and the effect of semen collection directly into extender on sperm agglutination. Semen samples were obtained by electroejaculation from 13 adult males. In experiment 1, eleven ejaculates from eight bears were used to evaluate Bioxcell and Andromed as extenders, whereas in experiment 2, nine ejaculates from six bears were used to evaluate Triladyl canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 as extenders. An extender specifically developed for brown bears (Test-Tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol, TTF-ULE/bear) served as a control extender in both experiments. After thawing, total and progressive sperm motility and sperm viability were greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear and Andromed extenders than for Bioxcell in experiment 1 and greater (P < 0.05) for TTF-ULE/bear extender than for Triladyl Canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 in experiment 2. In experiment 3, addition of handling extender (TTF-H) to the semen collection tube for eight ejaculates from seven bears resulted in less (P < 0.05) sperm agglutination in fresh samples (score 0.5 0.2 vs. 1.8 0.4 in diluted and control samples, respectively) with no effect on pre-freeze and post-thawing semen quality. In conclusion, TTF-ULE/bear is the most suitable extender for brown bear semen cryopreservation, but comparable results can be obtained with the commercial extender Andromed. In addition, collection of ejaculates directly in TTF-H extender decreases sperm agglutination in fresh samples.


PubMed | Cabarceno Park, SaBio IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM and University of León
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

Sedimentation of spermatozoa occurs during long-term liquid storage and this may produce deleterious changes. Our aim was to apply gelatine supplementation during long-term pre-freezing storage of bear sperm, applying final dilution and 6% glycerol at room temperature and cool in straws. We tested four models of sperm storage using a 1:1 dilution in TTF-ULE-Bear extender (TesT-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol 6%): (i) second 1:1 dilution at room temperature (RT), cooling at 5C in a tube and final dilution (10010(6) spermml(-1) ) (Standard); (ii) final dilution at RT and cooling in a tube (FD-Tube); (iii) final dilution at RT and cooling in 0.25ml plastic straw (FD-Straw); and (iv) final dilution at RT in extender supplemented with 1.5% gelatine (Gelatine) and cooling in a 0.25ml plastic straw. A Standard sample was stored at 5C for 1hr (Control); the rest of the samples (Standard, FD-Tube, FD-Straw, Gelatine) were stored for 24 or 48hrs before freezing (10010(6) spermml(-1) , glycerol 6%). The quality of the samples was assessed for motility by CASA, and viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide-PI-; VIAB), acrosomal status (PNA-FITC/PI; iACR) and apoptotic status (YO-PRO-1/PI; YOPRO-) by flow cytometry. At pre-freezing, after 48hr, Gelatine showed significantly higher viability (for VIAB and YOPRO-) and progressiveness (PM, LIN and STR). At 48hr, Gelatine showed similar YOPRO-, iACR, LIN, STR and ALH respect to Control. At both 24 and 48h post-thawing, Gelatine sample had similar scores for YOPRO-, iACR, LIN, STR, WOB and VIAB (only 24hr) when compared with Control, and lower for TM, PM, rapidPM, VAP and ALH. No differences were found among others experimental groups with respect to Control. In conclusion, gelatine could be a suitable alternative to preserve the viability and progressive motility of brown bear ejaculates during long-term pre-freezing storage at 5C.


PubMed | Cabarceno Park and University of León
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2015

Brown bear ejaculates are usually collected in field conditions and may need to be shipped to a laboratory for the application of reproductive biotechnologies before cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to extend the prefreezing step to 48 hours (1 hour vs. long-term storage [LS] to 24 and 48 hours) to enable the sample to be transported. The effects of storage temperature (experiment 1), glycerol concentration (experiment 2), and dilution rate (experiment 3) on sperm were evaluated. Electroejaculates from brown bears were stored under different experimental conditions and cryopreserved. The sperm motility and viability, apoptotic status, and acrosomal status of sperm were assessed before freezing (prefreezing), after thawing, and after 2-hour incubation at 37 C (thermal stress test). In all experiments, one control sample was frozen using a standard protocol (control). In experiment 1, three temperatures during LS with 6% glycerol were tested: 5 C (T5), 15 C (T15), and room temperature (RT). The LS-T5 sample yielded the highest postthawing results for viability (42.4%), progressive motility (15.6%), and intact acrosome (83.1%) after 24 hours in comparison with the other temperatures (P < 0.05); for 48 hours, the LS-T5 sample reached higher total and progressive motility (25.9% and 9%, respectively) and nonapoptotic values (36.5%). Recovery rates revealed susceptibility to freezing at LS-15 or LS-RT samples at 24 hours (viability) or 48 hours (viability and motility). In experiment 2, samples were stored at 5 C up to 48 hours and three glycerol concentrations were evaluated: 0% (0Gly), 3% (3Gly), and 6% (6Gly). Postthawing viability and motility increased progressively with the percentage of glycerol for 24 hours at 5 C; 6% glycerol during 48-hour storage had beneficial effects on sperm cryopreservation. Besides, 6% glycerol had a clearly superior freezability for viability (42.7% and 40.8% for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively) and motility (24 hours: total, 44.1%; progressive, 17.1%; 48 hours: total, 38.4%; progressive, 16%). In experiment 3, samples were stored up to 48 hours at 5 C with 6% of glycerol and two dilution methods were evaluated: dilution 1:1 (average: 1782 10(6) sperm/mL; low) or final dilution (100 10(6) sperm/mL; high). Both dilution rates showed similar postthawing and postincubation results within 24 hours of long-term storage. After 48 hours, high dilution supported better postthawing quality. Both dilutions showed similar resistance to cryopreservation, except after 48 hours, when the high dilution reached a higher percent recovery rate of viability (38.8% vs. 21.6%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that the best conditions for long-term prefreezing storage (up to 48 hours) of brown bear electroejaculates are at 5 C, at a concentration of 100 10(6) sperm/mL, and with 6% glycerol.

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