Leisure Village East, NJ, United States
Leisure Village East, NJ, United States

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Liu L.,Kansas State University | Maier A.,Kansas State University | Klocke N.,Kansas State University | Yan S.,C. W. Brabender Instruments Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Transactions of the ASABE | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to study the effect of irrigation levels (five levels from 304.8 to 76.2 mm water) on the physical and chemical properties and ethanol fermentation performance of sorghum. Ten sorghum samples grown under semi-arid climatic conditions were harvested in 2011 from the Kansas State University Southwest Research-Extension Center near Garden City, Kansas, and evaluated. Irrigation had a significant effect on the physical properties, chemical composition, ethanol yield, and fermentation efficiency of sorghum. Sorghum kernel hardness increased and test weight decreased as the irrigation level decreased. Starch contents of sorghum samples grown under a low irrigation level were approximately 7% less than those grown under a high irrigation level. Protein contents ranged from 9.84% to 14.91% and increased as irrigation level decreased. Starch pasting temperature increased significantly, and starch peak pasting viscosity and setback viscosity decreased as the irrigation level decreased. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) increased significantly as irrigation decreased. Ethanol fermentation efficiency ranged from 90.6% to 91.9% and correlated positively with FA N during the first 30 h of fermentation (R 2 = 0.926). Deficit irrigation level had a negative impact on ethanol yield. The sorghum with low irrigation yielded about 8.9% less ethanol (434.52 mL ethanol per kg sorghum) than samples with higher irrigation (473.32 mL ethanol per kg sorghum). Residual starch contents in the distillers dried grains with solubles was less than 1% and ranged from 0.70% to 0.84%. © 2013 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ISSN 2151-0032.


Yan S.,Kansas State University | Yan S.,C. W. Brabender Instruments Inc. | Wu X.,Kansas State University | Faubion J.,Kansas State University | And 5 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Ozone has been reported as being able to degrade macromolecules such as cellulose, starch, lignins, and tannins in the textile, pulping, and water-treatment industries. Thus, we hypothesized that ozone treatment may also inactivate tannin activity and increase fermentation efficiency of tannin sorghum lines. The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical properties of ozone-treated whole tannin grain sorghum flour and its fermentation performance in ethanol production. Results showed that the ethanol yields from ozone-treated tannin grain sorghums were significantly higher than yields from the untreated flour. The fermentation efficiency of ozone-treated tannin grain sorghum was approximately 90%, which was 8-14% higher than that of untreated samples at the 36th hr of fermentation. At the end of 72 hr of fermentation, the efficiencies of ozone-treated sorghum flour were 2-5% higher than those of untreated samples. Measured tannin levels of ozone-treated samples decreased significantly from 3.8 to 2.7%. Gel-permeation chromatographic results indicated that both degradation and polymerization processes might have happened to starch molecules during ozone treatment. Rapid Visco Analyzer data showed that the setback of viscosity of ozone-treated flour was lower than that of untreated flours. Distillers dried grains with solubles made from ozone-treated sorghum were low in residual starch (<1%) and high in crude protein (≈35%). Therefore, ozonation could be a novel and useful method to improve ethanol yield and fermentation efficiency of tannin grain sorghum. © 2012 AACC International, Inc.


Liu L.,Kansas State University | Klocke N.,Kansas State University | Yan S.,C. W. Brabender Instruments Inc. | Rogers D.,Kansas State University | And 4 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The objective of this research was to study the effect of irrigation levels (five levels from 102 to 457 mm of water) on the physical and chemical properties and ethanol fermentation performance of maize. Twenty maize samples with two crop rotation systems, grain sorghum-maize and maize-maize, were harvested in 2011 and evaluated at the Kansas State University Southwest Research-Extension Center near Garden City, Kansas, under a semiarid climate. Results showed that maize kernel weight, density, and breakage susceptibility decreased as irrigation level decreased. Starch contents of maize samples grown under a low irrigation level were approximately 3.0% lower than those under a high irrigation level. Protein contents ranged from 9.24 to 11.30% and increased as irrigation level decreased. Maize flour thermal and rheological properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and the Micro Visco- Amylo-Graph-U device. Starch gelatinization temperature increased significantly as irrigation level decreased, whereas starch pasting viscosity decreased as irrigation level decreased. Free amino nitrogen (FAN) was significantly affected by irrigation level: it increased as irrigation decreased. Ethanol fermentation efficiency ranged from 90.96 to 92.48% and was positively correlated with FAN during the first 32 h of fermentation (r2 = 0.645). Deficit irrigation had a negative impact on ethanol yield. The maize with lower irrigation yielded about 4.0% less ethanol (44.14 mL/100 g of maize) than maize with high irrigation (45.92 mL/100 g of maize). Residual starch contents in the distillers dried grains with solubles were in a range of 0.80-1.02%. In conclusion, deficit irrigation had a significant effect on physical properties, chemical composition, ethanol yield, and fermentation efficiency of maize. © 2013 AACC International, Inc.


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C.W. Brabender Instruments Inc. | Date: 2015-04-08

Instruments for Measuring, Recording, and Control of Viscosity, Consistency, Plasticity, Moisture, Temperature, Grindability and Extensibility for Use in Research and Development, Quality Control, Pilot Plants, and Production, namely, Rheometers, Viscometers, Rotational Viscosimeters, Integrating Rheometers, Torque Rheometers, Extrusion Rheometers, Plasticity Meters.


Trademark
C.W. Brabender Instruments Inc. | Date: 2015-04-08

Computer software for use in conjunction with plasticity machines to allow detection and use of accessories therewith by way of auto-recognition of attachment thereof and control module for operation and data collection of output from a torque rheometer, sold as a unit.

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