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Bussone G.,Neurological Institute C Besta
Headache | Year: 2012

Pain has been considered as part of a defensive strategy whose specific role is to signal an immediate active danger to the organism. This definition fits well for acute pain. It does not work well, however, for chronic pain that is maintained even in absence of an ongoing, active threat. Currently, acute and chronic pain are considered to be separate conditions. What follows is a review of the different theories about pain and its history. Different hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms are illustrated. New data emerging from scientific research on chronic pain (migraine in particular) involving innovative imaging techniques are reported and discussed. © 2012 American Headache Society.

La Mantia L.,Neurological Institute C Besta | Capsoni F.,University of Milan
Neurological Sciences | Year: 2010

Previous reports have suggested an increased risk of psoriasis in MS patients. Worsening of dermatologic lesions during interferon therapy has been rarely reported, but activation of psoriatic arthritis has not been described until now. The following is a case report. A 37-year-old woman affected by relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis had severe worsening of cutaneous psoriasis and activation of psoriatic arthritis during interferon beta treatment. The symptoms resolved after therapy discontinuation. This case further supports that activation of psoriasis might be a rare side effect of IFNB therapy and suggests careful evaluation of concomitant morbidity to allow a patient-oriented treatment strategy. © Springer-Verlag 2009.

Grazzi L.,Neurological Institute C Besta | Andrasik F.,University of Memphis
Current Pain and Headache Reports | Year: 2012

Migraine and tension-type headache are common clinical problems, occurring even at a young age. When patients report headache as a symptom, it is necessary to exclude a secondary headache induced by an organic disease. Proper diagnosis and management of headache depends on a thorough history review and comprehensive clinical examination. A Chiari malformation is one organic cause that should not be overlooked. A thorough clinical screening is always recommended, including a complete neurological, mental status and physical examination. However, when the symptom pattern suggests a Chiari malformation, neuroimaging is warranted to identify correctly the pathologic condition and the most appropriate therapeutic approach. This paper reviews this condition, the signs and symptoms suggestive of its presence and how to arrive a the proper diagnosis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Nobili L.,Center for Epilepsy Surgery | Proserpio P.,Center for Epilepsy Surgery | Rubboli G.,University of Bologna | Montano N.,University of Milan | And 3 more authors.
Sleep Medicine Reviews | Year: 2011

The risk of sudden unexpected death is considered to be notably higher in patients with epilepsy with respect to the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is probably caused by the peri-ictal concurrence of a number of different predisposing and precipitating factors. Among these, the presence of a seizure before the fatal event is the only feature that seems to be constantly present. Different mechanisms, namely cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory dysfunctions, dysregulation of systemic or cerebral circulation have been suggested as potential physiopathological mechanisms. Moreover, clinical data seem to suggest that SUDEP could occur preferentially during sleep. In order to assess a possible relationship between sleep and SUDEP, we have analyzed studies in which sufficient information about the circumstances of deaths was available. Our analysis confirms that the relationship between sleep and SUDEP is not given by chance as the percentage of possible sleep-related SUDEP is higher than 40% in the majority of studies. We will discuss the possible longstanding and precipitating mechanisms involved in the interaction between sleep and epilepsy likely to favour SUDEP occurrence. In this perspective, possible preventive measures will be hypothesized. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Canzi L.,Neurological Institute C Besta
Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) | Year: 2012

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is considered one of the most promising approaches for treating different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We previously characterized a subpopulation of human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (SkmSCs) with MSC-like characteristics that differentiate into the neurogenic lineage in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the SkmSC therapeutic effects in the most characterized model of spontaneous motor neuron degeneration, the Wobbler (Wr) mouse. Before evaluating the therapeutic efficacy in the Wr mouse, we followed the route of Skm-SCs at different times after intracerebroventricular injection. Two exogenous tracers, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and Hoechst 33258, were used for the in vivo and ex vivo tracking of SkmSCs. We found that the loading of both Hoechst and SPIO was not toxic and efficiently labeled SkmSCs. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system 7 Tesla allowed us to localize transplanted SkmSCs along the whole ventricular system up to 18 wks after injection. The ex vivo Hoechst 33258 visualization confirmed the in vivo results obtained by MRI analyses. Behavioral observations revealed a fast and sustained improvement of motor efficacy in SkmSC-treated Wr mice associated with a relevant protection of functional neuromuscular junctions. Moreover, we found that in SkmSC-treated Wr mice, a significant increase of important human antiinflammatory cytokines occurred. This evidence is in accordance with previous findings showing the bystander effect of stem cell transplantation in neurodegenerative disorders and further strengthens the hypothesis of the possible link between inflammation, cytotoxicity and ALS.

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