Tamil Nadu, India
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Mansoor S.S.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Shafi S.S.,Islamiah College
Journal of Molecular Liquids | Year: 2010

The oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BnOH) and a few para-substituted benzyl alcohols by tripropylammonium fluorochromate (TriPAFC) in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) leads to the formation of corresponding aldehydes. The reaction is first order each in TriPAFC and the alcohols. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ion dependence has the form: kobs = a + b[H +]. The oxidation of α α′-dideuterio benzyl alcohol exhibited a substantial primary kinetic isotope effect (kH/k D = 5.45 at 303 K). Oxidation of benzyl alcohol was studied in 19 different organic solvents. The solvent effect has been analysed using Kamlet's and Swain's multiparametric equation. A mechanism involving a hydride ion transfer via chromate ester is proposed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Sheik Mansoor S.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Syed Shafi S.,Islamiah College
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

The oxidation kinetics of some para-substituted anilines by benzimidazolium fluorochromate (BIFC) have been studied in aqueous acetic acid media in the presence of perchloric acid. The reaction is first order with respect to both aniline and BIFC and is catalysed by a hydrogen ion. The rate data obey Hammett relationship. The products of oxidation are the corresponding azo benzenes. Based on the kinetic results and product analysis, a suitable mechanism has been proposed for the reaction of BIFC with anilines. © 2010.


Jayaseelan C.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Ramkumar R.,Periyar University | Rahuman A.A.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Perumal P.,Periyar University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) using seed aqueous extract of Abelmoschus esculentus and its antifungal activity. UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, AFM, FESEM and EDX analyses were performed to ascertain the formation of Au NPs. The synthesized Au NPs were characterized by a peak at 536. nm in the UV-visible spectrum. XRD confirmed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles of 62. nm size. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1. 1. 1), (2. 0. 0), (2. 2. 0) and (3. 1. 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result clearly showed that the extracts containing OH as a functional group act in capping the nanoparticles synthesis. AFM shows the 3D topological characteristic of Au NPs. FESEM images revealed that all particles were spherical with a narrow size range of 45-75. nm. Antifungal activity of Au NPs were tested against Puccinia graminis tritci, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using standard well diffusion method. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in the Au NPs against P. graminis (17. mm) and C. albicans (18. mm). The results suggest that the synthesized Au NPs act as an effective antifungal agent. It is confirmed that Au NPs are capable of rendering high antifungal efficacy and hence has a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against fungal diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Basha S.K.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Kumari V.S.,Auxilium College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2012

Objective: To evaluate the glucose uptake of (antidiabetic activity) crude n-hexane, ethanol, ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts of P. guajava. Methods: P. guajava leaf extracts were subjected to inhibitory effect of glucose utilization using specific standard in vitro procedure. Results: Results in four different leaf extracts revealed that, the methanol extract at a concentration of 50g plant extract/l was found to be more potent than other extracts with the lowest mean glucose concentration of 201+1.69 mg/dl at the end of 27 hrs. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that, the methanolic extract showed a significant inhibitory effect on glucose diffusion in vitro thus validating the traditional claim of the plant. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Taju G.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Abdul Majeed S.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Nambi K.S.N.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Sahul Hameed A.S.,C Abdul Hakeem College
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Catla gill cell line (ICG) was established from gill tissue of Indian major carp (Catla catla), a freshwater fish cultivated in India. The cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. These cells have been sub-cultured more than 55 passages over a period of 2years. The ICG cell line consists predominantly of epithelial-like cells. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 24°C to 32°C with an optimum temperature of 28°C. The growth rate of gill cells increased as the fetal bovine serum (FBS) proportion increased from 2% to 20% at 28°C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 10% or 15% FBS. Amplification of mitochondrial gene 12s rRNA using primers specific to C. catla confirmed the origin of this cell line from C. catla. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at passage numbers 25, 35, 45 and 55. The cytotoxicity of three metal salts (ZnCl2, CuSO4 and CdCl2) was assessed in ICG cell line using multiple endpoints such as MTT, Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Acute toxicity assay on fish were conducted by exposing C. catla for 96h to three metal salts under static conditions. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r2=0.908-0.985 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sheik Mansoor S.,C Abdul Hakeem College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2010

The kinetics of oxidation of benzaldehyde (BA) by benzimidazolium fluorochromate (BIFC) in aqueous acetic medium has been studied at 303 K. The reaction is first order with respect [BIFC], [BA] and [H+]. The reaction has been found to be catalyzed by H+ ions. To study the effect of structure reactivity relationships, some para-substituted benzaldehydes were subjected to oxidation by benzimidazolium fluorochromate at four different temperatures and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The Exner plot showed that all the para-substituted benzaldehydes are oxidized by the same mechanism. The Hammett plot is linear with positive ρ values. The products of the oxidation are the corresponding acids. From the observed kinetic results a suitable mechanism has been proposed.


The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV- visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.71©, 32.16©, 38.08©, 46.15©, 54.70©and 57.35©. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm-1. The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC50 and LC90 values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO3 solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC50=12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC90=49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


Mansoor S.S.,C Abdul Hakeem College
E-Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2011

The kinetics of oxidation of methionine (Met) by tripropylammonium fluorochromate (TriPAFC) has been studied in the presence of chloroacetic acid in aqueous acetic acid medium. The reaction is first order with respect to methionine, TriPAFC and acid. The reaction rate has been determined at different temperatures and activation parameters calculated. With an increase in the amount of acetic acid in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.


Bagavan A.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Rahuman A.A.,C Abdul Hakeem College
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of plant extracts. Methods: The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol leaf, flower and seed extracts of Abrus precatorius (A. precatorius), Croton bonplandianum (C. bonplandianum), Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon), Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) were tested against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles vagus (An. vagus), Armigeres subalbatus (Ar. subalbatus) and Culex vishnui (Cx. vishnui). Results: The highest larval mortality was found in seed ethyl acetate extracts of A. precatorius and leaf extracts of C. bonplandianum, flower chloroform and methanol extracts of M. paradisiaca, and flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against An. vagus with LC 50 values of 19.31, 39.96, 35.18, 79.90 and 85.90 μg/mL; leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. dactylon, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud methanol extract of S. aromaticum against Ar. subalbatus with LC 50 values of 21.67, 32.62, 48.90 and 78.28 μg/mL, and seed methanol of A. precatorius, flower methanol extract of M. paradisiaca, flower bud hexane extract of S. aromaticum against Cx. vishnui with LC 50 values of 136.84, 103.36 and 149.56 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of disease vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of crude solvent extracts of different mosquitoes. © 2011 Hainan Medical College.


Bagavan A.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Rahuman A.A.,C Abdul Hakeem College | Kaushik N.K.,Malaria Research Laboratory | Sahal D.,Malaria Research Laboratory
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC50 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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