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Göttingen, Germany

Salomon J.J.,Trinity College Dublin | Salomon J.J.,University of Heidelberg | Hagos Y.,University of Gottingen | Hagos Y.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Beta-2-adrenergic agonists are first line therapeutics in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Upon inhalation, bronchodilation is achieved after binding to β2-receptors, which are primarily localized on airway smooth muscle cells. Given that β2-adrenergic agonists chemically are bases, they carry net positive charge at physiologic pH value in the lungs (i.e., pH 7.4). Here, we studied whether β2-agonists interact with organic cation transporters (OCT) and whether this interaction exerted an influence on their passage across the respiratory epithelium to their target receptors. [14C]-TEA uptake into proximal (i.e., Calu-3) and distal (i.e., A549 and NCI-H441) lung epithelial cells was significantly reduced in the presence of salbutamol sulfate, formoterol fumarate, and salmeterol xinafoate in vitro. Expression of all five members of the OCT/N family has been confirmed in human pulmonary epithelial cells in situ and in vitro, which makes the identification of the transporter(s) responsible for the β2-agonist interaction challenging. Thus, additional experiments were carried out in HEK-293 cells transfected with hOCT1-3. The most pronounced inhibition of organic cation uptake by β2-agonists was observed in hOCT1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells. hOCT3 transfected HEK-293 cells were affected to a lesser extent, and in hOCT2 transfectants only marginal inhibition of organic cation uptake by β2-agonists was observed. Bidirectional transport studies across confluent NCI-H441 cell monolayers revealed a net absorptive transport of [3H]-salbutamol, which was sensitive to inhibition by the OCT1 modulator, verapamil. Accordingly, salbutamol uptake into hOCT1 overexpressing HEK-293 cells was time- and concentration-dependent and could be completely blocked by decynium-22. Taken together, our data suggest that β2-agonists are specific substrates and inhibitors of OCT1 in human respiratory epithelial cells and that this transporter might play a role in the pulmonary disposition of drugs of this class. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Marada V.V.V.R.,Universitatmedizin Gottingen | Florl S.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | Kuhne A.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | Muller J.,Universitatmedizin Gottingen | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacological Research | Year: 2015

The ability of an antineoplastic drug to exert its cytostatic effect depends largely on the balance between its uptake into and extrusion from the cancer cells. ATP driven efflux transporter proteins drive the export of antineoplastic drugs and play a pivotal role in the development of chemoresistance. As regards uptake transporters, comparably less is known on their impact in drug action. In the current study, we characterized the interactions of two uptake transporter proteins, expressed mainly in the liver; the organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, encoded by the SLC22A7 gene) and the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP, encoded by the SLC10A1 gene), stably transfected in human embryonic kidney cells, with some antineoplastic agents that are routinely being used in cancer chemotherapy. Whereas NTCP did not show any strong interactions with the cytostatics tested, we observed a very strong inhibition of OAT2 mediated [3H] cGMP uptake in the presence of bendamustine, irinotecan and paclitaxel. The Ki values of OAT2 for bendamustine, irinotecan and paclitaxel were determined to be 43.3 ± 4.33 μM, 26.4 ± 2.34 μM and 10.4 ± 0.45 μM, respectively. Incubation of bendamustine with OAT2 expressing cells increased the caspase-3 activity, and this increase was inhibited by simultaneous incubation with bendamustine and probenecid, a well-known inhibitor of OATs, suggesting that bendamustine is a substrate of OAT2. A higher accumulation of irinotecan was observed in OAT2 expressing cells compared to control pcDNA cells by HPLC analysis of cell lysates. The accumulation was diminished in the presence of cGMP, the substrate we used to functionally characterize OAT2, suggesting specificity of this uptake and the fact that OAT2 mediates uptake of irinotecan. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Marada V.V.V.R.,Universitatsmedizin Gottingen | Florl S.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | Kuhne A.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | Burckhardt G.,Universitatsmedizin Gottingen | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Antineoplastic compounds are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. The effectiveness of an antineoplastic compound to exert its activity is largely dependent on transport proteins involved in the entry of the compound into the cells, and those which drive it out of the cell. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), belonging to the SLCO family of proteins, are specifically expressed in the sinusoidal membranes of the liver, and are known to interact with a variety of drugs. The present study deals with the interaction of these proteins with antineoplastic compounds routinely used in cancer chemotherapy. The proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were functionally characterized in stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells using [3H] labeled estrone 3-sulfate and [3H] labeled cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) as substrates, respectively. Substrate uptake experiments performed in the presence of antineoplastic compounds showed that vinblastine and paclitaxel strongly interacted with the OATP1B1 with Ki values of 10.2 μM and 0.84 μM, respectively. OATP1B3 showed highly significant interactions with a variety of antineoplastic compounds including chlorambucil, mitoxantrone, vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel and etoposide, with Ki values of 40.6 μM, 3.2 μM, 15.9 μM, 30.6 μM, 1.8 μM and 13.5 μM, respectively. We report several novel interactions of the transporter proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 highlighting the need to investigate their role in drugedrug interactions and cancer chemotherapy. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. Source


Hagos Y.,systemIC | Hagos Y.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | Wegner W.,systemIC | Kuehne A.,PortaCellTec Biosciences GmbH | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Increased expression of transporters-mediating uptake of antineoplastic drugs could render renal cell carcinoma (RCC) more sensitive to chemotherapy. Here, we studied the effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) on the expression of selected uptake transporters in RCC lines. Organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) mRNA levels in HNF4α-transfected RCCs were measured by real-time PCR. Expression of HNF4α, β-catenin,N-cadherin, and E-cadherinwas detected by immunofluorescence. OCT1, OAT2, and concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (CNT3) were tested using tritium-labeled substrates and an apoptosis assay. Most RCC did not express uptake transporters in the absence or presence of HNF4α. In RCCNG1 cells, HNF4α-expression increased the chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin and enhanced the accumulation of methyl-4-phenylpyridinium acetate, a model substrate for OCT1. Furthermore, HNF4α enhanced OAT2 mRNA and increased caspase-3 activity upon incubation with a purported OAT2 substrate, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, functional OAT2 protein was not upregulated. CNT3 mRNA was significantly elevated by HNF4α. Inhibition of CNT3-mediated uridine uptake by 5-FU metabolite 5-fluoro-2 -deoxyuridine suggested the involvement of CNT3 in increased caspase-3 activity. Our data suggest that HNF4α increases the expression of OCT1 and CNT3 in RCCNG1 cells, thereby increasing the chemosensitivity of tumor cells to oxaliplatin and 5-FU. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3326-3334, 2014 ©2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. Source

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