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Multān, Pakistan

Abbas G.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan T.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Farooq J.,Cotton Research Institute | Mahmood A.,Cotton Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers of Agriculture in China | Year: 2011

This research was conducted to explore genetic material that can yield better under salt stress conditions. The experiment was laid out using 27 upland cotton genotypes in a RCBD 2 factorial arrangement with two replications. Saline water (NaCl at 20 dS/m) was applied after satisfactory emergence was achieved. The crop was raised to maturity and data relating to yield, fiber quality and ionic traits were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant variations in the germplasm. Plant height, bolls per plant, boll weight, GOT%, staple length, staple strength, K + and K +/Na + ratio under salinity stress showed a highly significant correlation with seed-cotton yield. The highest direct effect on seedcotton yield per plant was exhibited by bolls per plant and boll weight. The results from the correlation and path coefficient analyses revealed that although the K +/Na + ratio had a strong positively significant association with seedcotton yield, its direct effect on the seed-cotton yield was negative and thus selection on the basis of K +/Na + may not be fruitful. Hence, only indirect selection through bolls per plant and boll weight may be effective in increasing the seedcotton yield per plant under salinity stress. © 2011 Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Hassan N.,Hazara University | Hassan N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Irfan M.,FUUAST | Khan N.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

The effect of oxygen annealing on the excess conductivity of Cu 0.5Tl 0.25M 0.25Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 10-δ (M K, Na, Li, Tl) samples is investigated. From the analysis of results, we have evaluated the exponents, the coherence length, the crossover temperature, and interlayer coupling strength (J) of the samples. These studies show that the K-doped post-annealed sample has shown narrow transition width with improvement in 2D and 3D conductivities. Oxygen annealing has also enhanced the coherence length and interlayer coupling strength of the material. Na- and Li-doped post-annealed samples have shown increased transition width, poor 2D and 3D conductivities within narrow temperature windows. After annealing, reduction in coherence length and the interlayer coupling strength is also observed. While in Tl-doped sample, oxygen annealing has not caused much deviation in fluctuation induced conductivity (FIC) parameters. The underlying cause of improved behavior of post-annealed K-doped sample is also discussed. © 2012 American Institute of Physics. Source


Objectives: To compare pterygium recurrence following excision with limbal conjunctival autograft with application of Mitomycin-C versus non application of Mitomycin-C in patients below age 45 years. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, NMC, Multan from 15.06.2009 to 15.12.2009. Materials and Methods: Total 86 patients with the age range 25-44 years were selected for this study and categorized randomly into two groups, group-I (n=43) and group-II (n=43). Pterygium surgery was performed with limbal conjunctival autograft without the use of Mitomycin-C in group-I and with the use of Mitomycin-C in group-II. Three patients out of 86 cases did not visit for follow-up. Results: Pterygium was more prevalent in males (n=65, 75.58%) and majority of the patients (n=36, 41.9%) were between 41-44 years of age. There were 7 (17.07%) cases of recurrence observed in group-I and only 1 (2.38%) case of recurrence in group-II, the difference in recurrence rate was statistically significant (p=0.02). Conclusion: For pterygium surgery, limbal conjunctival autograft combined with intraoperative application of Mitomycin C is recommended. Source


Alam S.,Japan National Institute of Materials Science | Ahmad J.,BZU | Ohya Y.,Gifu University | Chungli D.,Gifu University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2012

Recently, an interesting multiferroic system PbVO 3 [A. A. Belik et al.: Chem. Mater. 17 (2005) 269] has been successfully prepared using a high-pressure and high-temperature technique. The crystallographic features of PbVO 3 were reported. In this note, we concentrate on the theoretical and the experimental X-ray near edge absorption structure (XANES) spectra by considering the K-edge of Vanadium. The tetragonality (c/a = 1.229 at 300 K) of PbVO 3 is the largest in the PbTiO 3 family of compounds. Thus, one is led naturally to examine the effects of the changes in the tetragonality and axial oxygen position on the electronic structure (i.e., XANES spectrum). We study these effects in two ways. At a given temperature, we vary the tetragonality and the axial oxygen position, and quantify the changes in terms of the XANES difference spectrum. Secondly, we compute the XANES spectra at three different temperatures, namely, 90, 300, and 530 K, and quantify the changes in terms of the difference spectrum. We note that in this compound the tetragonality increases almost monotonically with temperature from 12 to 570 K, without transition to the cubic phase under ambient pressure. A key objective of the current investigation is to gain an understanding of various absorption features in the vicinity of the K-edge of V, in terms of valence, local site symmetry, local coordination geometry, local bond distances, charge transfer, and local projected density of states. We consider both the polarized and unpolarized XANES spectra, theoretically. The experiment was performed on the polycrystalline material after the theoretical investigation. In short, we have performed a local electronic study, theoretical as well as experimental, which complements the crystallographic features reported recently for PbVO 3. The local electronic study given here is supplemented and enhanced by the O-K edge results indicated in the accompanying Paper II, which gives both the experimental and theoretical analyses of the XES, XAS, and fundamental band gap of PbVO 3, which is found to be 1.2 eV. © 2012 The Physical Society of Japan. Source


Siddiqui M.I.,Nishtar Institute of Dentistry | Iqbal M.J.,Nishtar Institute of Dentistry | Ansari M.A.,BZU
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2010

Introduction: Dental caries is an age old problem of the human beings which needs elimination. Advances in the world have caused different effects to this problem. Surveys are conducted to evaluate the extant of this disease and the possible causative factors, periodically in different areas. Aims and Objectives: Present study was conducted to evaluate the DMFT of 12-15 years old population in a rural area of south Punjab- Pakistan. Materials and Methods: About 950 students (male & female) 12-15 years old from Six rural area school of Muzaffargarh District were included in the study. Examination was made in day light with a mirror and probe. Entries were made in a printed proforma. Results: An overall DMFT of 2.09 was observed for the 922 subjects. DMFT increased with age. It was more in females (2.22) and less in male (2.01) and the children from better socio economic status had less scores (1.94) as compared to poor (2.24). More meals were associated with less caries while more intermeal snacks caused increase in caries, Brushing habits could not be correlated to DMFT. Conclusion: Rural population needs Oral Hygiene education. Better oral hygiene measures, less frequency of intermeal snacks and prophylactic measures may help reduce the caries. Source

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