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Hunt J.B.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Nash K.R.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Nash K.R.,University of South Florida | Placides D.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Tau accumulation remains one of the closest correlates of neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, tau associates with several other neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies, in which clinical phenotypes manifest as cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and motor impairment. Polyamines act as bivalent regulators of cellular function and are involved in numerous biological processes. The regulation of the polyamines system can become dysfunctional during disease states. Arginase 1 (Arg1) and nitric oxide synthases compete for L-arginine to produce either polyamines or nitric oxide, respectively. Herein, we show that overexpression of Arg1 using adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the CNS of rTg4510 tau transgenic mice significantly reduced phospho-tau species and tangle pathology. Sustained Arg1 overexpression decreased several kinases capable of phosphorylating tau, decreased inflammation, and modulated changes in the mammalian target of rapamycin and related proteins, suggesting activation of autophagy. Arg1 overexpression also mitigated hippocampal atrophy in tau transgenic mice. Conversely, conditional deletion of Arg1 in myeloid cells resulted in increased tau accumulation relative to Arg1-sufficient mice after transduction with a recombinant AAV–tau construct. These data suggest that Arg1 and the polyamine pathway may offer novel therapeutic targets for tauopathies. © 2015 the authors. Source

Arendash G.W.,Florida Alzheimers Disease Research Center | Arendash G.W.,University of South Florida | Sanchez-Ramos J.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Sanchez-Ramos J.,University of South Florida | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

Despite numerous studies, there is no definitive evidence that high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is a risk to human health. To the contrary, this report presents the first evidence that long-term EMF exposure directly associated with cell phone use (918 MHz; 0.25 w/kg) provides cognitive benefits. Both cognitive-protective and cognitive-enhancing effects of EMF exposure were discovered for both normal mice and transgenic mice destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. The cognitive interference task utilized in this study was designed from, and measure-for-measure analogous to, a human cognitive interference task. In Alzheimer's disease mice, long-term EMF exposure reduced brain amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition through Aβ anti-aggregation actions and increased brain temperature during exposure periods. Several inter-related mechanisms of EMF action are proposed, including increased Aβ clearance from the brains of Alzheimer's disease mice, increased neuronal activity, and increased cerebral blood flow. Although caution should be taken in extrapolating these mouse studies to humans, we conclude that EMF exposure may represent a non-invasive, non-pharmacologic therapeutic against Alzheimer's disease and an effective memory-enhancing approach in general. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Abisambra J.F.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Abisambra J.F.,University of South Florida | Fiorelli T.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Fiorelli T.,University of South Florida | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. The major molecular risk factor for late-onset AD is expression of the ε-4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE), the major cholesterol transporter in the brain. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has the highest affinity for apoE and plays an important role in brain cholesterol metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using RT-PCR and western blotting techniques we found that over-expression of APP caused increases in both LDLR mRNA and protein levels in APP transfected H4 neuroglioma cells compared to H4 controls. Furthermore, immunohistochemical experiments showed aberrant localization of LDLR in H4-APP neuroglioma cells, Aβ-treated primary neurons, and in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model of AD. Finally, immunofluorescent staining of LDLR and of γ- and α-tubulin showed a change in LDLR localization preferentially away from the plasma membrane that was paralleled by and likely the result of a disruption of the microtubule-organizing center and associated microtubule network. Conclusions/Significance: These data suggest that increased APP expression and Aβ exposure alters microtubule function, leading to reduced transport of LDLR to the plasma membrane. Consequent deleterious effects on apoE uptake and function will have implications for AD pathogenesis and/or progression. © 2010 Abisambra et al. Source

Lee D.C.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Lee D.C.,University of South Florida | Rizer J.,Byrd Alzheimers Institute | Rizer J.,University of South Florida | And 8 more authors.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology | Year: 2013

The inflammation hypothesis of Alzheimer's pathogenesis has directed much scientific effort towards ameliorating this disease. The development of mouse models of amyloid deposition permitted direct tests of the proposal that amyloid-activated microglia could cause neurodegeneration in vivo. Many approaches to manipulating microglial activation have been applied to these mouse models, and are the subject of this review. In general, these results do not support a direct neuricidal action of microglia in mouse amyloid models under any activation state. Some of the manipulations cause both a reduction in pathology and a reduction in microglial activation. However, at least for agents like ibuprofen, this outcome may result from a direct action on amyloid production, and a reduction in the microglial-provoking amyloid deposits, rather than from reduced microglial activation leading to a decline in amyloid deposition. Instead, a surprising number of the experimental manipulations which increase microglial activation lead to enhanced clearance of the amyloid deposits. Both the literature and new data presented here suggest that either classical or alternative activation of microglia can lead to enhanced amyloid clearance. However, a limited number of studies comparing the same treatments in amyloid-depositing vs. tau-depositing mice find the opposite effects. Treatments that benefit amyloid pathology accelerate tau pathology. This observation argues strongly that potential treatments be tested for impact on both amyloid and tau pathology before consideration of testing in humans. © 2012 British Neuropathological Society. Source

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