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Chandanwale A.S.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Sundar S.,Vasantha Subramanian Hospital | Latchoumibady K.,Vijay Hospital | Biswas S.,Abbott Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pain Research | Year: 2014

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of tramadol and diclofenac versus a standard approved FDC of tramadol and paracetamol, in patients with acute moderate to severe pain. Methods: A total of 204 patients with moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions (n=52), acute flare of osteoarthritis (n=52), acute flare of rheumatoid arthritis (n=50), or postoperative pain (n=50) were enrolled in the study at baseline. Each disease category was then randomized to receive either of two treatments for 5 days: group A received an FDC of immediate-release tramadol hydrochloride (50 mg) and sustained-release diclofenac sodium (75 mg) (one tablet, twice daily), and group B received an FDC of tramadol hydrochloride (37.5 mg) and paracetamol (325 mg) (two tablets every 4-6 hours, up to a maximum of eight tablets daily). The primary efficacy end points were reductions in pain intensity from baseline at day 3 and day 5 as assessed by a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score. Results: Group A showed a significant reduction in the VAS score for overall pain from baseline on day 3 (P=0.001) and day 5 (P<0.0001) as compared with group B. The combination of tramadol-diclofenac resulted in few mild to moderate adverse events (nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and gastritis), which required minimal management, without any treatment discontinuation. The number of adverse events in group A was nine (8.82%) compared with 22 (21.78%) in group B, after 5 days of treatment. Conclusion: An FDC of tramadol-diclofenac showed a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity and was well tolerated compared with tramadol-paracetamol, resulting in better analgesia in patients suffering from moderate to severe pain due to acute musculoskeletal conditions, postoperative pain following orthopedic surgery, or acute flare of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. © 2014 Chandanwale et al.

Walsh K.,BMJ Group | Sandars J.,Leeds Institute of Medical Education | Sandars J.,University of Leeds | Kapoor S.S.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Governance | Year: 2010

Purpose: To assess the impact of e-learning resources based on NICE guidelines in improving knowledge and changing practice among health professionals.Methodology: NICE in collaboration with BMJ Learning developed a series of e-learning modules based on NICE recommendations relating to osteoarthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, urinary tract infection in children, and antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. The impact of these modules was evaluated by looking at the knowledge and skills of the learners before and after they did the modules and also asking the learners about practice change in light of them. Findings: A total of 5116 users completed the modules. Completing them enabled users to increase their knowledge and skills score from the pre-test to the post-test by a statistically significant amount (p <0.001): from a mean of 65% to 85%. Qualitative feedback to the modules was overwhelmingly positive. To test long term effectiveness, we emailed users six weeks after they had completed the modules to assess practice change. The response rate to the survey was 22.2%. 88.6% of those who had cared for patients with these problems since completing the module said that it had helped them put NICE guidelines into practice. Research implications and limitations: E-learning modules have high uptake, are popular and effective at helping health professionals learn about NICE guidelines and help them put these guidelines into practice. Originality and value: This study is valuable as it shows how interactive and multimedia resources help health professionals learn about guidelines. No previous studies have been identified. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sahasrabuddhe V.V.,Vanderbilt University | Bhosale R.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Joshi S.N.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kavatkar A.N.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Prevalence estimates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among HIV-infected women in India have been based on cervical cytology, which may have underestimated true disease burden. We sought to better establish prevalence estimates and evaluate risk factors of CIN among HIV-infected women in Pune, India using colposcopy and histopathology as diagnostic tools. Methodology: Previously unscreened, non-pregnant HIV-infected women underwent cervical cancer screening evaluation including standardized diagnostic colposcopy by a gynecologist. Histopathologic confirmation was conducted among consenting women with clinical suspicion of CIN. The prevalence of CIN was evaluated by a composite diagnosis based on colposcopy and histopathology results. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN. Results: The median age of the n = 303 enrolled HIV-infected women was 30 years (interquartile range, 27-34). A majority of the participants were widowed or separated (187/303, 61.7%), more than one-third (114/302, 37.7%) were not educated beyond primary school, and nearly two-thirds (196/301, 64.7%) had a family per capita income of <1,000 Indian Rupees (∼US$22) per month. Cervical high-risk HPV-DNA was detected in 41.7% (124/297) of participants. The composite colposcopic-histopathologic diagnoses revealed no evidence of CIN in 220 out of 303 (72.6%) women, CIN1 in 33/303 (10.9%), CIN2 in 31/303 (10.2%), CIN3 in 18/303 (5.9%) and 1 (0.3%) woman was diagnosed with ICC. Thus, over a quarter of the participants [83/303: 27.7% (95% CI: 22.7-33.1)] had ≥CIN1 lesions and a sixth [50/303: 16.5% (95% CI: 12.2-21.9)] had evidence of advanced (≥CIN2) neoplastic disease. The independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN as revealed by a proportional odds model using multivariable ordinal logistic regression included (i) currently receiving antiretroviral therapy [adjusted odds ratios (aOR): 2.24 (1.17, 4.26), p = 0.01] and (ii) presence of cervical high-risk HPV-DNA [aOR: 1.93 (1.13, 3.28), p = 0.02]. Conclusions: HIV-infected women in Pune, India have a substantial burden of cervical precancerous lesions, which may progress to invasive cervical cancer unless appropriately detected and treated. Increased attention should focus on recognizing and addressing this entirely preventable cancer among HIV-infected women, especially in the context of increasing longevity due to antiretroviral therapy. © 2010 Sahasrabuddhe et al.

Sahasrabuddhe V.V.,Vanderbilt University | Bhosale R.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Kavatkar A.N.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Nagwanshi C.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in India and other developing country settings are living longer on antiretroviral therapy, yet their risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer remains unabated because of lack of cost-effective and accurate secondary prevention methods. Visual inspection after application of dilute acetic acid on the cervix (VIA) has not been adequately studied against the current standard: conventional cervical cytology (Pap smears) among HIV-infected women. We evaluated 303 nonpregnant HIV-infected women in Pune, India, by simultaneous and independent screening with VIA and cervical cytology with disease ascertainment by colposcopy and histopathology. At the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) disease threshold, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value estimates of VIA were 80, 82.6, 47.6 and 95.4% respectively, compared to 60.5, 59.6, 22.4 and 88.7% for the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or severe (ASCUS+) cutoff on cytology, 60.5, 64.6, 24.8 and 89.4% for the low-grade squamous intraepithelial cells or severe (LSIL+) cutoff on cytology and 20.9, 96.0, 50.0 and 86.3% for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or severe (HSIL+) cutoff on cytology. A similar pattern of results was found for women with the presence of carcinogenic HPV-positive CIN2+ disease, as well as for women with CD4+ cell counts <200 and <350 μL -1. Overall, VIA performed better than cytology in this study with biologically rigorous endpoints and without verification bias, suggesting that VIA is a practical and useful alternative or adjunctive screening test for HIV-infected women. Implementing VIA-based screening within HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care programs may provide an easy and practical means of complementing the highly anticipated low-cost HPV-based rapid screening tests in the near future, thereby contributing to improve program effectiveness of screening. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

Rokade S.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Gaikawad A.P.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Anatomical Sciences Education | Year: 2012

With the attendant rise of the number of medical colleges in India over past few decades, the demand for cadavers used in medical education and research is growing. However, there is an insufficient supply of donated cadavers available for dissection. This study was undertaken to assess the general population's awareness of body donation programs and willingness to donate in the State of Maharashtra, India. The willingness of participants to donate was compared with age, gender, and education of the respondents. A total of 625 adult individuals from the State of Maharashtra participated in a survey composed of questions about age, sex, education, awareness of body donation programs, and willingness to donate. It was found that 90.9% of the medical colleges surveyed reported an inadequate supply of cadavers. Of the general population, 32.1% of respondents were aware of body donation, compared to 95.83% of health care professionals. However, only 19.5% of the general population and 44.9% of health care professionals were willing to donate their bodies for anatomical education. Younger age groups, males, graduates, and postgraduates were found more willing to donate their bodies. Organ donation was preferred over body donation. A lack of awareness about body donation was the main factor responsible for respondents' "no body donation" response in the general population, along with firm religious beliefs and customs, the fear that the donated body will not be treated with respect and dignity, and the unacceptability of the dissection of one's own body. To overcome the current shortage of donated cadavers, efforts should be undertaken to change the mindset of the wider Indian society toward body donation. The authors believe this is possible through awareness campaigns and that prospective donors' concerns should be addressed appropriately. Proper guidance and assistance regarding body donation should be easily available for potential donors. © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

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