Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College

Ahmadābād, India

Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College

Ahmadābād, India
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Sahasrabuddhe V.V.,Vanderbilt University | Bhosale R.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Kavatkar A.N.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Nagwanshi C.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in India and other developing country settings are living longer on antiretroviral therapy, yet their risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancer remains unabated because of lack of cost-effective and accurate secondary prevention methods. Visual inspection after application of dilute acetic acid on the cervix (VIA) has not been adequately studied against the current standard: conventional cervical cytology (Pap smears) among HIV-infected women. We evaluated 303 nonpregnant HIV-infected women in Pune, India, by simultaneous and independent screening with VIA and cervical cytology with disease ascertainment by colposcopy and histopathology. At the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) disease threshold, the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value estimates of VIA were 80, 82.6, 47.6 and 95.4% respectively, compared to 60.5, 59.6, 22.4 and 88.7% for the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or severe (ASCUS+) cutoff on cytology, 60.5, 64.6, 24.8 and 89.4% for the low-grade squamous intraepithelial cells or severe (LSIL+) cutoff on cytology and 20.9, 96.0, 50.0 and 86.3% for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or severe (HSIL+) cutoff on cytology. A similar pattern of results was found for women with the presence of carcinogenic HPV-positive CIN2+ disease, as well as for women with CD4+ cell counts <200 and <350 μL -1. Overall, VIA performed better than cytology in this study with biologically rigorous endpoints and without verification bias, suggesting that VIA is a practical and useful alternative or adjunctive screening test for HIV-infected women. Implementing VIA-based screening within HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care programs may provide an easy and practical means of complementing the highly anticipated low-cost HPV-based rapid screening tests in the near future, thereby contributing to improve program effectiveness of screening. Copyright © 2011 UICC.


Chaudhari K.S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Chaudhari K.S.,Kamaladevi Gauridutt Mittal Ayurvedic Hospital and College | Tiwari N.R.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Tiwari R.R.,Kamaladevi Gauridutt Mittal Ayurvedic Hospital and College | Sharma R.S.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
Annals of Neurosciences | Year: 2017

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the elderly. The rapid increase in its incidence has necessitated development of newer drugs. Ayurvedic herbal medications are increasingly researched due to their biosafety profile and usefulness in cognitive impairment. In this article, we critically reviewed one such Medhya Rasayana (nootropic drug) Brahmi-derived from extract of Bacopa monnieri (EBm). Studies have shown that EBm promotes free radical scavenger mechanisms and protects cells in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum against cytotoxicity and DNA damage implicated in AD. It also reduces lipoxygenase activity reducing lipid peroxidation, increases glutathione peroxidase and chelates iron. Administration of EBm was seen to protect the cholinergic neurons and reduce anticholinesterase activity comparable to donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. It also reduces hippocampal β-amyloid deposition and stress-induced hippocampal damage. The neuroprotective effect of EBm is also due to nitric oxide-mediated cerebral vasodilation. EBm improved the total memory score and maximum improvement was seen in logical memory and paired associate learning in humans and reversed phenytoin-induced memory impairment in experimental model. EBm has not shown any serious clinical, neurological, hematological complications, or vital organs damage in experimental studies. Rats showed marked reduction in fertility; however, libido was unaffected. There is no experimental evidence of genotoxicity or teratogenesis by use of EBm. Mild nausea and gastrointestinal upset are seen in humans. Brahmi promises to be a novel agent in AD; however, further human trials are recommended to verify the efficacy and rule out any side effects as evidenced by the experimental models. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Singh H.K.,Johns Hopkins University | Singh H.K.,City College of New York | Gupte N.,Johns Hopkins University | Kinikar A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 9 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life.Methods: Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) trial (India SWEN), where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors.Results: Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13%) were HIV-infected, 15 (16%) were on HAART, and 260 (35%) were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization.Conclusions: HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis) and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health measures against infections could significantly reduce hospitalization morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed Indian infants. © 2011 Singh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Sham M.,G 101 | Singh D.,G 101 | Wankhede U.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Wadate A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Year: 2013

Aim: To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI) in child victims of acute sexual assault. settings and Design: It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India. Material and Methods : Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age), had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition. Results : The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%. Conclusion : Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a child′s local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal.


Sahasrabuddhe V.V.,Vanderbilt University | Bhosale R.A.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Joshi S.N.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kavatkar A.N.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Prevalence estimates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among HIV-infected women in India have been based on cervical cytology, which may have underestimated true disease burden. We sought to better establish prevalence estimates and evaluate risk factors of CIN among HIV-infected women in Pune, India using colposcopy and histopathology as diagnostic tools. Methodology: Previously unscreened, non-pregnant HIV-infected women underwent cervical cancer screening evaluation including standardized diagnostic colposcopy by a gynecologist. Histopathologic confirmation was conducted among consenting women with clinical suspicion of CIN. The prevalence of CIN was evaluated by a composite diagnosis based on colposcopy and histopathology results. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN. Results: The median age of the n = 303 enrolled HIV-infected women was 30 years (interquartile range, 27-34). A majority of the participants were widowed or separated (187/303, 61.7%), more than one-third (114/302, 37.7%) were not educated beyond primary school, and nearly two-thirds (196/301, 64.7%) had a family per capita income of <1,000 Indian Rupees (∼US$22) per month. Cervical high-risk HPV-DNA was detected in 41.7% (124/297) of participants. The composite colposcopic-histopathologic diagnoses revealed no evidence of CIN in 220 out of 303 (72.6%) women, CIN1 in 33/303 (10.9%), CIN2 in 31/303 (10.2%), CIN3 in 18/303 (5.9%) and 1 (0.3%) woman was diagnosed with ICC. Thus, over a quarter of the participants [83/303: 27.7% (95% CI: 22.7-33.1)] had ≥CIN1 lesions and a sixth [50/303: 16.5% (95% CI: 12.2-21.9)] had evidence of advanced (≥CIN2) neoplastic disease. The independent predictors of increasing severity of CIN as revealed by a proportional odds model using multivariable ordinal logistic regression included (i) currently receiving antiretroviral therapy [adjusted odds ratios (aOR): 2.24 (1.17, 4.26), p = 0.01] and (ii) presence of cervical high-risk HPV-DNA [aOR: 1.93 (1.13, 3.28), p = 0.02]. Conclusions: HIV-infected women in Pune, India have a substantial burden of cervical precancerous lesions, which may progress to invasive cervical cancer unless appropriately detected and treated. Increased attention should focus on recognizing and addressing this entirely preventable cancer among HIV-infected women, especially in the context of increasing longevity due to antiretroviral therapy. © 2010 Sahasrabuddhe et al.


Parmar S.B.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Mehta H.K.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Shah N.K.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Parikh S.N.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Solanki K.G.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock | Year: 2014

Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.


Kulkarni R.V.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College | Thakur S.S.,Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Indian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised individuals. While rhinocerebral and pulmonary forms are most common, primary gastrointestinal mucormycosis is very uncommon. The stomach is the most commonly affected organ followed by the colon and ileum in alimentary zygomycosis. We report a rare case of invasive gastric mucormycosis in a 50-year-old diabetic gentleman with a history of chronic alcoholism presenting with complaints of pain and distension of the abdomen for 6 days associated with fever, nausea, vomiting and anorexia. At presentation, he was hemodynamically unstable, febrile with uncontrolled blood sugar level and had negative HIV serology. There was generalized guarding, rigidity and distension of the abdomen and investigations confirmed perforative peritonitis. Upon exploration, there was solitary large 4 × 4 cm size perforated ulcer in the gastric body with greenish, greyish sloughed out mucosa within. Wedge resection of the ulcer with primary closure was performed. Histopathology revealed aseptate, broad, obtuse angled fungal hyphae, and invasive mucormycosis was confirmed by special stains like Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Gomori′s methenamine silver (GMS). Very few cases of invasive gastric mucormycosis associated with uncontrolled diabetes and alcoholism have been reported in the literature. Delayed presentation of the patient along with rapid progression to fungal septicaemia resulted in the case fatality despite early surgical intervention and critical care management. © 2014, Association of Surgeons of India.


PubMed | Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of emergencies, trauma, and shock | Year: 2014

The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice.We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway.A prospective, clinical study.We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography.We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea.Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.


PubMed | Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons | Year: 2013

To evaluate the outcome of definitive repair of anogenital injuries (AGI) in child victims of acute sexual assault.It is a prospective study of emergency care provided to child victims of acute sexual assault at a tertiary care Pediatric Surgical Unit in Maharashtra, India.Out of 25 children, who presented during January 2009-December 2010 with suspected sexual assault, five children (one male and four female, between 4-9 years of age), had incurred major AGI. These children underwent definitive repair and a diverting colostomy. Perineal pull-through was performed in the male child with major avulsion of rectum. One 4-year-old girl with intraperitoneal vaginal injury required exploratory laparotomy in addition.The postoperative period and follow-up was uneventful in all our patients. Four out of five patients have excellent cosmetic and functional outcome with a follow-up of 2-4 years. Our continence results are 100%.Children with acute sexual assault need emergency care. To optimally restore the distorted anatomy, all major AGI in such children should be primarily repaired by an expert, conversant with a childs local genital and perineal anatomy. Along with provision of comprehensive and compassionate medical care, prevention of secondary injuries should be the ultimate goal.


PubMed | Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The National medical journal of India | Year: 2012

The reference interval is the most widely used medical decision-making tool that separates healthy from diseased individuals. We briefly discuss the methods used to determine reference interval and its limitations.

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