ByFlow srl

Bologna, Italy

ByFlow srl

Bologna, Italy
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Sapino S.,University of Turin | Oliaro-Bosso S.,University of Turin | Zonari D.,University of Turin | Zattoni A.,byFlow Srl | Ugazio E.,University of Turin
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2017

The systemic administration of methotrexate (MTX), a commonly used, antineoplastic drug which is also used in cutaneous disorders, is primarily associated with prolonged retention in the body and consequently with side effects. Innovative drug delivery techniques and alternative administration routes would therefore contribute to its safe and effective use. The general objective of this study is thus the development of MTX-based preparations for the topical treatment of skin disorders. MCM-41-like nanoparticles (MSN), are herein proposed as carriers which can improve the cutaneous absorption and hence the bioavailability and efficacy of MTX. The MTX/MSN complex, prepared via the impregnation procedure, has been physico-chemically characterized, while its cell cultures have had their biocompatibility and bioactivity tested. Furthermore, a series of stable MTX-based dermal formulations has been developed, some containing shea butter, a natural fat. Ex-vivo porcine skin absorption and the transepidermal permeation of MTX have also been monitored in a variety of media using Franz diffusion cells. Interestingly, the epidermal accumulation of the active molecule was increased by its inclusion into MSN, regardless of the surrounding medium. Furthermore, the presence of shea butter enhanced the skin uptake of the drug both in the free and in the loaded form. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Zattoni A.,byFlow Srl | Roda B.,byFlow Srl | Reschiglian P.,byFlow Srl
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014

Structured nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled size distribution and novel physicochemical features present fundamental advantages as drug delivery systems with respect to bulk drugs. NPs can transport and release drugs to target sites with high efficiency and limited side effects.Regulatory institutions such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission have pointed out that major limitations to the real application of current nanotechnology lie in the lack of homogeneous, pure and well-characterized NPs, also because of the lack of well-assessed, robust routine methods for their quality control and characterization. Many properties of NPs are size-dependent, thus the particle size distribution (PSD) plays a fundamental role in determining the NP properties. At present, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) are among the most used techniques to size characterize NPs. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is also applied to the size separation of complex NP samples. SEC selectivity is, however, quite limited for very large molar mass analytes such as NPs, and interactions with the stationary phase can alter NP morphology. Flow field-flow fractionation (F4) is increasingly used as a mature separation method to size sort and characterize NPs in native conditions. Moreover, the hyphenation with light scattering (LS) methods can enhance the accuracy of size analysis of complex samples. In this paper, the applications of F4-LS to NP analysis used as drug delivery systems for their size analysis, and the study of stability and drug release effects are reviewed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Roda B.,byFlow Srl | Zattoni A.,byFlow Srl | Reschiglian P.,byFlow Srl | Tofail S.A.M.,University of Limerick | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2015

Due to the increased use of silver nanoparticles in industrial scale manufacturing, consumer products and nanomedicine reliable measurements of properties such as the size, shape and distribution of these nano particles in aqueous medium is critical. These properties indeed affect both functional properties and biological impacts especially in quantifying associated risks and identifying suitable risk-mediation strategies. The feasibility of on-line coupling of a fractionation technique such as hollow-fiber flow field flow fractionation (HF5) with a light scattering technique such as MALS (multi-angle light scattering) is investigated here for this purpose. Data obtained from such a fractionation technique and its combination thereof with MALS have been compared with those from more conventional but often complementary techniques e.g. transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. The combination of fractionation and multi angle light scattering techniques have been found to offer an ideal, hyphenated methodology for a simultaneous size-separation and characterization of silver nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic radii determined by fractionation techniques can be conveniently correlated to the mean average diameters determined by multi angle light scattering and reliable information on particle morphology in aqueous dispersion has been obtained. The ability to separate silver (Ag+) ions from silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via membrane filtration during size analysis is an added advantage in obtaining quantitative insights to its risk potential. Most importantly, the methodology developed in this article can potentially be extended to similar characterization of metal-based nanoparticles when studying their functional effectiveness and hazard potential. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Johann C.,Wyatt Technology Europe GmbH | Elsenberg S.,Wyatt Technology Europe GmbH | Roesch U.,Wyatt Technology Europe GmbH | Rambaldi D.C.,Wyatt Technology Europe GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

A new system design and setup are proposed for the combined use of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and hollow-fiber flow field-flow fractionation (HF5) within the same instrumentation. To this purpose, three innovations are presented: (a) a new flow control scheme where focusing flow rates are measured in real time allowing to adjust the flow rate ratio as desired; (b) a new HF5 channel design consisting of two sets of ferrule, gasket and cap nut used to mount the fiber inside a tube. This design provides a mechanism for effective and straightforward sealing of the fiber; (c) a new AF4 channel design with only two fluid connections on the upper plate. Only one pump is needed to deliver the necessary flow rates. In the focusing/relaxation step the two parts of the focusing flow and a bypass flow flushing the detectors are created with two splits of the flow from the pump. In the elution mode the cross-flow is measured and controlled with a flow controller device. This leads to reduced pressure pulsations in the channel and improves signal to noise ratio in the detectors. Experimental results of the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and of a mix of four proteins demonstrate a significant improvement in the HF5 separation performance, in terms of efficiency, resolution, and run-to-run reproducibility compared to what has been reported in the literature. Separation performance in HF5 mode is shown to be comparable to the performance in AF4 mode using a channel with two connections in the upper plate. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Lattuada D.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda | Roda B.,ByFlow Srl | Pignatari C.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda | Magni R.,Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda | And 6 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The analysis of cellular and molecular profiles represents a powerful tool in many biomedical applications to identify the mechanisms underlying the pathological changes. The improvement of cellular starting material and the maintenance of the physiological status in the sample preparation are very useful. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are a model for prediction of endothelial dysfunction. HUVEC are enzymatically removed from the umbilical vein by collagenase. This method provides obtaining a good sample yield. However, the obtained cells are often contaminated with blood cells and fibroblasts. Methods based on negative selection by in vitro passages or on the use of defined marker are currently employed to isolate target cells. However, these approaches cannot reproduce physiological status and they require expensive instrumentation. Here we proposed a new method for an easy, tag-less and direct isolation of HUVEC from raw umbilical cord sample based on the gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF). This is a low-cost, fully biocompatible method with low instrumental and training investments for flow-assisted cell fractionation. The method allows obtaining pure cells without cell culture procedures as starting material for further analysis; for example, a proper amount of RNA can be extracted. The approach can be easily integrated into clinical and biomedical procedures. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Anand R.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | Borghi F.,University of Bologna | Manoli F.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | Manet I.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Doxorubicin (DOX) entrapment in porous Fe(III)-trimesate metal organic frameworks (MIL-100(Fe)) nanoparticles was investigated in neutral Tris buffer via UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence. The binding constants and the absolute spectra of the DOX-MIL-100(Fe) complexes were determined via absorption and fluorescence titrations. A binding model where DOX associates as monomer to the dehydrated Fe3O (OH)(H 2O)2 [(C6H3)(CO2) 3]2 structural unit in 1:1 stoichiometry, with apparent association constant of (1.1 to 1.8) × 104 M-1, was found to reasonably fit the experimental data. Spectroscopic data indicate that DOX binding occurs via the formation of highly stable coordination bonds between one or both deprotonated hydroxyl groups of the aglycone moiety and coordinatively unsaturated Fe(III) centers. Complete quenching of the DOX fluorescence and remarkable thermal and photochemical stability were observed for DOX incorporated in the MIL-100(Fe) framework. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Melucci M.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | Melucci M.,CNR Institute of Chemistry of organometallic Compounds | Zambianchi M.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | Barbarella G.,CNR Institute for Organic Syntheses and Photoreactivity | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2010

Oligothiophenes (TFs) with blue, green and orange emission have been used for the first time as doping fluorophores of silica nanoparticles (SiO 2NPs). High purification of the new nanoparticles (TFsSiO 2NPs) from free molecular fluorophores was achieved by means of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation on-line combined with multi-angle light scattering and fluorescent detection (AF4-MALS-FD). The synthesis, structural, compositional and optical characterizations of the new TFsSiO 2NPs are reported. We show that the tailored co-assembly of TFs in bi- and tricomponent TFsSiO2NPs allows for the fine-tuning of the emission of the nanoparticles from blue to white by means of FRET processes between adjacent TFs. These unique optical signatures make TFsSiO2NPs potentially effective tools for fluorescent sensing and labeling. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Marassi V.,University of Bologna | Roda B.,University of Bologna | Roda B.,ByFlow srl | Zattoni A.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2014

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are promising reagents both for the manufacture of drug substances and for their employment as a drug themselves, but to be approved for utilization, according to FDA recommendations and WHO guidelines, they have to undergo verifications regarding their purity, stability and percentage of aggregates. Moreover, stability tests of lots have to be performed in order to verify molecular size distribution over time and lot-to-lot consistency. Recent works in literature have highlighted the need for suitable, sensitive and reliable complementary analytical techniques for the characterization of mAbs and quantification of aggregates. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is the reference technique in the biopharmaceutical industry for its robustness, high performance and simple use; however it presents some limitations especially toward the separation and detection of aggregates with high molecular weight. On the other hand, flow field-flow fractionation (F4) in its miniaturized version (hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation, HF5) shows comparable performances with interesting additional advantages: a broad size range, gentle separation mechanism with low dilution factor and higher sensitivity. To propose HF5 as a complementary technique for evaluating aggregates' content in mAbs samples, a comparative study of both SEC and HF5 performances has been made. In this work, SEC and HF5 were coupled with UV and multi-angle light scattering detection and employed first in separating standard samples of proteins mixture used as a sample model. Then, a screening of mobile phases and an evaluation of separation performances was performed on a therapeutic mAbs formulation, demonstrating the complementarities between SEC and HF5 and their possible use as a separative platform approach for the characterization and quality control of protein drugs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Reschiglian P.,University of Bologna | Reschiglian P.,ByFlow Srl | Roda B.,University of Bologna | Roda B.,ByFlow Srl | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

The rapid development of protein-based pharmaceuticals highlights the need for robust analytical methods to ensure their quality and stability. Among proteins used in pharmaceutical applications, an important and ever increasing role is represented by monoclonal antibodies and large proteins, which are often modified to enhance their activity or stability when used as drugs. The bioactivity and the stability of those proteins are closely related to the maintenance of their complex structure, which however are influenced by many external factors that can cause degradation and/or aggregation. The presence of aggregates in these drugs could reduce their bioactivity and bioavailability, and induce immunogenicity. The choice of the proper analytical method for the analysis of aggregates is fundamental to understand their (size) dimensional range, their amount, and if they are present in the sample as generated by an aggregation or as an artifact due to the method itself. Size exclusion chromatography is one of the most important techniques for the quality control of pharmaceutical proteins; however, its application is limited to relatively low molar mass aggregates. Among the techniques for the size characterization of proteins, field-flow fractionation (FFF) represents a competitive choice because of its soft mechanism due to the absence of a stationary phase and application in a broader size range, from nanometer- to micrometer-sized analytes. In this paper, the microcolumn variant of FFF, the hollow-fiber flow FFF, was online coupled with multi-angle light scattering, and a method for the characterization of aggregates with high reproducibility and low limit of detection was demonstrated employing an avidin derivate as sample model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Zattoni A.,University of Bologna | Zattoni A.,ByFlow S.r.l. | Rambaldi D.C.,University of Bologna | Rambaldi D.C.,ByFlow S.r.l. | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Reinjection of one ore more collected fractions of eluted samples is recognized as a useful procedure in analytical separation techniques, among which field-flow fractionation (FFF), to improve the actual separation of complex samples. Hollow-fiber flow FFF (HF5) is a micro-channel subset of flow FFF (F4), which has recently reached a performance comparable to that of standard, flat-channel F4. To further improve HF5 of complex protein samples, we present a new device and method for in-line, reinjection HF5 that we call tandem HF5 (HF5/HF5). HF5 is ideally suited for tandem operation because (1) small channel volume and low operation flow rates allow reducing dilution and volume of the collected fractions, and (2) the relaxation/focusing step that takes place between the 1st and 2nd run (refocusing) allows reestablishing the volume and concentration of the sample plug before the 2nd elution. HF5/HF5 proves particularly effective in the case of oligomeric proteins since it allows collecting and reinjecting the bands that correspond to each separated oligomeric form. This provides information on the dynamic equilibria between the different oligomers. For HF5/HF5 operations, a modified, prototype HF5 instrumentation is presented which includes a " trap" constituted of a four-port, two-way valve positioned downstream the UV detector and a collection loop. The effect of refocusing conditions on HF5/HF5 performance is investigated by varying refocusing time. With a complex protein samples such as blood serum, HF5/HF5 can improve detectability of the low abundance components since overloading effects due to high-abundance components are reduced. This is shown for serum lipoproteins: while after the 1st run high density lipoproteins (HDLs) are not separated from high-abundance serum proteins, after the 2nd run it is shown possible to separate the HDL subclasses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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