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Indianapolis, IN, United States

Butler University is a private university located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Founded in 1855 and named after founder Ovid Butler, the university has over 60 major academic fields of study in six colleges: College of Business, College of Communication, College of Education, College of Liberal Arts and science, College of Pharmacy and Health science, and Jordan College of the Arts. It comprises a 295-acre campus located approximately five miles from downtown Indianapolis. Wikipedia.

Grossman P.Z.,Butler University
Theory and Decision | Year: 2010

In the game theory literature, Garrett Hardin's famous allegory of the "tragedy of the commons" has been modeled as a variant of the Prisoner's Dilemma, labeled the Herder Problem (or, sometimes, the Commons Dilemma). This brief paper argues that important differences in the institutional structures of the standard Prisoner's Dilemma and Herder Problem render the two games different in kind. Specifically, institutional impediments to communication and cooperation that ensure a dominant strategy of defection in the classic Prisoner's Dilemma are absent in the Herder Problem. Their absence does not ensure that players will achieve a welfare-enhancing, cooperative solution to the Herders Problem, but does create far more opportunity for players to alter the expected payoffs through cooperative arrangements. In a properly modeled Herder Problem-along the lines of an assurance game-defection would not always be the dominant strategy. Consequently, the Herder Problem is not in the nature of a Prisoner's Dilemma. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Kowalski J.R.,Butler University | Juo P.,Tufts University
Neural Plasticity | Year: 2012

Posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitin has emerged as a critical regulator of synapse development and function. Ubiquitination is a reversible modification mediated by the concerted action of a large number of specific ubiquitin ligases and ubiquitin proteases, called deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). The balance of activity of these enzymes determines the localization, function, and stability of target proteins. While some DUBs counter the action of specific ubiquitin ligases by removing ubiquitin and editing ubiquitin chains, other DUBs function more generally to maintain the cellular pool of free ubiquitin monomers. The importance of DUB function at the synapse is underscored by the association of specific mutations in DUB genes with several neurological disorders. Over the last decade, although much research has led to the identification and characterization of many ubiquitin ligases at the synapse, our knowledge of the relevant DUBs that act at the synapse has lagged. This review is focused on highlighting our current understanding of DUBs that regulate synaptic function and the diseases that result from dysfunction of these DUBs. © 2012 Jennifer R. Kowalski and Peter Juo. Source

Grossman P.Z.,Butler University
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

What motivates changes in energy policy? Typically, the process begins with a notable exogenous event, a shock. Often, the shock leads to what is perceived to be a crisis. This review essay surveys theories of crisis policymaking from the social science literature and considers their application to changes in energy policy. Two cases-one from the U.S., the other from Germany-are examined in more detail from the standpoint of the theories discussed. Suggestions are made for improving energy policy analysis in the future. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gervasio J.,Butler University
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition | Year: 2012

Standardized commercial parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations have advantages and disadvantages as compared with PN formulations compounded using an automated compounding device. These advantages and disadvantages are discussed along with the supporting available research. Copyright © 2012 American Society. Source

Rende R.,Butler University
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

One of the most important deliverables of the post-genomic era has been a new and nuanced appreciation of how the environment shapes-and holds potential to alter-the expression of susceptibility genes for behavioral dimensions and disorders. This paper will consider three themes that have emerged from cutting-edge research studies that utilize newer molecular genetic approaches as well as tried-and-true genetic epidemiological methodologies, with particular reference to evolving perspectives on resilience and plasticity. These themes are: (1) evidence for replicable and robust shared environmental effects on a number of clinically relevant behaviors in childhood and adolescence; (2) evolving research on gene-environment interaction; and (3) a newer focus on differential susceptibility and plasticity. The net sum of these themes is that consideration of genetic effects on behavioral dimensions and disorders needs to be connected to thinking about the role of environment as a potent source for promoting resilience and change. © 2012 Rende. Source

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