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Cameron A.,Clark University | Reed K.P.,Clark University | Ninnemann A.,Butler Hospital
Addictive Behaviors | Year: 2013

Avoidance of negative affect is one motivational factor that explains smoking cessation relapse during cessation attempts. This negative reinforcement model of smoking cessation and relapse has demonstrated the importance of one's ability to tolerate nicotine withdrawal symptoms, particularly negative affect states, in remaining abstinent from smoking. Distress tolerance and implicit associations are two individual constructs that may influence the strength of this relationship. In this pilot study the authors examined implicit associations related to avoidance and negative affect using a modified Implicit Association Test (IAT), a measure designed to examine implicit associations related to negative affect and avoidance, and the relationship of these associations to distress tolerance and smoking relapse. In total, 40 participants were recruited through community flyers as part of a larger smoking cessation study. Participants completed a brief smoking history, behavioral distress tolerance assessments, and the modified IAT. Smoking status was assessed via phone 3. days and 6. days post-quit date. Results from a Cox proportional hazard model revealed that implicit associations between avoidance and negative affect were significantly negatively correlated with time to relapse after a smoking cessation attempt, whereas the behavioral distress tolerance assessments did not predict time to relapse. This study provides novel information about the cognitive associations that may underlie avoidant behavior in smokers, and may be important for understanding smoking relapse when negative affect states are particularly difficult to tolerate. Authors discuss the importance of implicit associations in understanding smoking relapse and how they can be targeted in treatment.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Magee S.R.,Brown University | Battle C.,Butler Hospital | Battle C.,Brown University | Morton J.,Brown University | Nothnagle M.,Brown University
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose: In this commentary we describe our experience developing a "gentle cesarean" program at a community hospital housing a family medicine residency program. The gentle cesarean technique has been popularized in recent obstetrics literature as a viable option to enhance the experience and outcomes of women and families undergoing cesarean delivery.Methods: Skin-to-skin placement of the infant in the operating room with no separation of mother and infant, reduction of extraneous noise, and initiation of breastfeeding in the operating room distinguish this technique from traditional cesarean delivery. Collaboration among family physicians, obstetricians, midwives, pediatricians, neonatologists, anesthesiologists, nurses, and operating room personnel facilitated the provision of gentle cesarean delivery to families requiring an operative birth.Results: Among 144 gentle cesarean births performed from 2009 to 2012, complication rates were similar to or lower than those for traditional cesarean births. Gentle cesarean delivery is now standard of care at our institution.Conclusion: By sharing our experience, we hope to help other hospitals develop gentle cesarean programs. Family physicians should play an integral role in this process. (J Am Board Fam Med 2014; 27:690-693.).

Ting S.A.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Sullivan A.F.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Boudreaux E.D.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Miller I.,Butler Hospital | Camargo C.A.,Massachusetts General Hospital
General Hospital Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Objective: The objective was to describe the epidemiology of emergency department (ED) visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury over a 16-year period. Method: Data were obtained from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey including all visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury (E950-E959) during 1993-2008. Results: Over the 16-year period, there was an average of 420,000 annual ED visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury [1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.67) visits per 1000 US population], and the average annual number for these ED visits more than doubled from 244,000 in 1993-1996 to 538,000 in 2005-2008. During the same time frame, ED visits for these injuries per 1000 US population almost doubled for males (0.84 to 1.62), females (1.04 to 1.96), whites (0.94 to 1.82) and blacks (1.14 to 2.10). Visits were most common among ages 15-19, and the number of visits coded as urgent/emergent decreased from 0.95 in 1993-1996 to 0.70 in 2005-2008. Conclusions: ED visit volume for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury has increased over the past two decades in all major demographic groups. Awareness of these longitudinal trends may assist efforts to increase research on suicide prevention. In addition, this information may be used to inform current suicide and self-injury related ED interventions and treatment programs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Teno J.,Brown University | Meltzer D.O.,University of Chicago | Mitchell S.L.,Institute for Aging Research | Fulton A.T.,Butler Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Health Affairs | Year: 2014

Striking variation has been documented in the rates of feeding tube insertion for hospitalized patients with advanced dementia. This occurs despite the harms of the procedure, which may outweigh its benefits, and the procedure's inconsistency with care focused on the patient's comfort. Among nursing home residents with advanced dementia who were hospitalized in 2001-10 with an infection or dehydration, we found that rates of insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube varied by type of attending physician. Insertion rates were markedly lower when all of a patient's attending physicians were hospitalists (1.6 percent) or nonhospitalist generalists (2.2 percent), compared to all subspecialists (11.0 percent) or a mixture of physicians by type, which typically included a subspecialist (15.6 percent). The portion of patients seen by a mixture of attending physicians increased from 28.9 percent in 2001 to 38.3 percent in 2010. Efforts to improve decision making in the care of patients with advanced dementia should include interventions to improve communication among physicians and the education of subspecialists about the merits of using feeding tubes with this population. © 2014 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Carpenter L.L.,Butler Hospital | Janicak P.G.,Rush University Medical Center | Aaronson S.T.,Sheppard Pratt Health System | Boyadjis T.,Private Practice | And 5 more authors.
Depression and Anxiety | Year: 2012

Background Few studies have examined the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in real-world clinical practice settings. Methods Forty-two US-based clinical TMS practice sites treated 307 outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and persistent symptoms despite antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Treatment was based on the labeled procedures of the approved TMS device. Assessments were performed at baseline, week 2, at the point of maximal acute benefit, and at week 6 when the acute course extended beyond 6 weeks. The primary outcome was change in the Clinician Global Impressions-Severity of Illness from baseline to end of acute phase. Secondary outcomes were change in continuous and categorical outcomes on self-report depression scales (9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], and Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report [IDS-SR]). Results Patients had a mean ± SD age of 48.6 ± 14.2 years and 66.8% were female. Patients received an average of 2.5 (± 2.4) antidepressant treatments of adequate dose and duration without satisfactory improvement in this episode. There was a significant change in CGI-S from baseline to end of treatment (-1.9 ± 1.4, P <.0001). Clinician-assessed response rate (CGI-S) was 58.0% and remission rate was 37.1%. Patient-reported response rate ranged from 56.4 to 41.5% and remission rate ranged from 28.7 to 26.5%, (PHQ-9 and IDS-SR, respectively). Conclusion Outcomes demonstrated response and adherence rates similar to research populations. These data indicate that TMS is an effective treatment for those unable to benefit from initial antidepressant medication. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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