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Festel G.,Festel Capital | Festel G.,Autodisplay Biotech GmbH | Festel G.,Butalco GmbH | Festel G.,ETH Zurich | And 5 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Energy | Year: 2014

The current taxation benefits for biofuels are only temporary. Therefore, biofuel production costs need to be able to compete with those of conventional fuels in order to gain market share in the future. However, highly complex influencing factors make a comparison of biofuel production costs with those of fossil fuels challenging. This chapter has three major goals: (1) a projection of future feedstock prices for biofuels based on the development of the price for crude oil, (2) a simulation of the effects of likely economies of scale from scaling-up production size and technological learning on production costs and (3) a scenario analysis comparing different biofuels and fossil fuels. European biofuel production costs for 2015 as well as 2020 are projected based on a calculation model for biofuel production. Our scenarios assume prices for crude oil between Euro 50 and Euro 200 per barrel for both reference years. Our results indicate that mid- to long-term, second-generation biofuels are very likely to achieve competitive production costs, if technological learning and economies of scale are factored in. Bioethanol made from lignocellulosic biomass and biodiesel from waste oil promise the highest cost-saving potential in all crude price scenarios and are capable of outperforming fossil fuels and first-generation biofuels in the future. © Springer-Verlag London 2014.


The present invention relates to novel expression cassettes and expression vectors, comprising three nucleic acid sequences for araA, araB and araD, each coding for a polypeptide of an L-arabinose metabolic pathway, in particular, a bacterial L-arabinose metabolic pathway. The invention particularly relates to expression cassettes and expression vectors, comprising codon-optimised nucleic acid sequences for araA, araB and araD. The invention further relates to host cells, in particular modified yeast strains containing the expression cassettes or expression vectors and expressing the polypeptides for the L-arabinose metabolic pathway, in particular, for the bacterial L-arabinose metabolic pathway. When using these modified host cells, arabinose is more effectively fermented by these cells, in particular into ethanol. The present invention is therefore relevant, inter alia, in connection with the production of biochemicals from biomass, such as bioethanol for example.


Festel G.,Festel Capital | Festel G.,Butalco GmbH | Festel G.,ETH Zurich | Festel G.,Autodisplay Biotech GmbH | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Competitive production costs compared to conventional fuels are imperative for biofuels to gain market shares, as current tax advantages for biofuels are only temporary. Comparing production costs of different biofuels with fossil fuels is a challenge due to the complexity of influencing factors. The objective of this research paper is threefold: 1) to project future bio-fuel feedstock prices based on the crude oil price development, the price index for agricultural products, growth in world population, growth in wealth per capita income, and change in energy consumption per capita, 2) to simulate production costs under consideration of likely economies of scale from scaling-up production size and technological learning and 3) to compare different biofuels and fossil fuels by scenario analysis. A calculation model for biofuel production is used to analyse projected production costs for different types of biofuels in Europe for 2015 and 2020. Unlike engineering oriented bottom-up approaches that are often used in other biofuel studies, the macro-economic top-down approach applied in this study enables an economic comparison and discussion of various fuel types based on reference scenarios of crude oil prices of €50, €100, €150 and €200 per barrel. Depending on the specific raw material prices as well as the conversion costs, the analysis delivered a differentiated view on the production costs and thus on the competitiveness of each individual type of fuel. The results show that 2nd generation biofuels are most likely to achieve competitive production costs mid- to long-term when taking into account the effects from technological learning and production scale size as well as crude oil price scenarios between €50 and €200 per barrel for both reference years. In all crude oil price scenarios, bioethanol from lignocellulosic raw materials as well as biodiesel from waste oil are associated with high cost saving potentials which enable them to outperform fossil fuels and 1st generation biofuels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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