Busselton Population Medical Research Institute

Busselton, Australia

Busselton Population Medical Research Institute

Busselton, Australia
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Bucks R.S.,University of Western Australia | Dunlop P.D.,University of Western Australia | Taljaard D.S.,University of Western Australia | Taljaard D.S.,Princess Margaret Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Laryngoscope | Year: 2016

Objectives/Hypothesis: To determine the relationship between peripheral hearing loss (HL) in baby boomers (better-ear measure) and cognitive function, taking into account the impact of depression or cognitive reserve on this relationship and exploring binaural hearing. Study Design: A prospective, epidemiology study. Methods: Data from 1,969 participants aged 45 to 66 years were collected in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. Participants were assessed using pure-tone air-conduction thresholds at octave frequencies (250; 500; 1,000; 2,000; 4,000; and 8,000 Hz). Hearing loss was grouped using 1) pure-tone averages across 4 frequencies (500 to 4000Hz) in the better ear (BE4FA) or 2) latent profile analysis (LPA) using all thresholds from both ears. Cognition was tested with the Cognitive Drug Research System, verbal fluency, and National Adult Reading Test (premorbid-IQ). Regression was used to determine the impact of HL relative to no HL on age and education-adjusted cognition, controlling for mood, sex, and premorbid-IQ. Results: According to BE4FA, 4.7% had mild (26–40 dB) HL; 0.8% had moderate (41–60 dB) HL; and 0.3% had severe (61–80 dB) HL. Based on the LPA, 20.5% had high-frequency HL; 7.8% had mid- to high-frequency HL; and 1.9% had significant HL across all frequencies. The HL group was not a predictor of cognitive performance in any domain using BE4FA and explained just 0.5% and 0.4% of variance in continuity-of-attention and speed-of-memory retrieval using LPA. Critically, those with the worst hearing did not differ cognitively from those with the best. Conclusion: Hearing loss is not an important determinant of contemporaneous attention, memory, or executive function in middle-aged adults once age, education, depression, cognitive reserve, and sex are controlled. Level of Evidence: 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2367–2375, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.


Loth D.W.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Loth D.W.,Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate | Artigas M.S.,University of Leicester | Artigas M.S.,National Health Research Institute | And 198 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.© 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Bowatte G.,University of Melbourne | Lodge C.J.,University of Melbourne | Lodge C.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute | Lowe A.J.,University of Melbourne | And 15 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2016

Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participant’s residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Bowatte G.,University of Melbourne | Lodge C.J.,University of Melbourne | Knibbs L.D.,University of Queensland | Lowe A.J.,University of Melbourne | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

Background: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure is associated with allergic airway diseases and reduced lung function in children, but evidence concerning adults, especially in low-pollution settings, is scarce and inconsistent. Objectives: We sought to determine whether exposure to TRAP in middle age is associated with allergic sensitization, current asthma, and reduced lung function in adults, and whether these associations are modified by variants in Glutathione S-Transferase genes. Methods: The study sample comprised the proband 2002 laboratory study of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study. Mean annual residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated for current residential addresses using a validated land-use regression model. Associations between TRAP exposure and allergic sensitization, lung function, current wheeze, and asthma (n = 1405) were investigated using regression models. Results: Increased mean annual NO2 exposure was associated with increased risk of atopy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28 per 1 interquartile range increase in NO2 [2.2 ppb]) and current wheeze (aOR, 1.14; 1.02-1.28). Similarly, living less than 200 m from a major road was associated with current wheeze (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80) and atopy (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.99-1.62), and was also associated with having significantly lower prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator FEV1 and prebronchodilator forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of forced vital capacity. We found evidence of interactions between living less than 200 m from a major road and GSTT1 polymorphism for atopy, asthma, and atopic asthma. Overall, carriers of the GSTT1 null genotype had an increased risk of asthma and allergic outcomes if exposed to TRAP. Conclusions: Even relatively low TRAP exposures confer an increased risk of adverse respiratory and allergic outcomes in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


PubMed | Helmholtz Center Munich, Monash University, Busselton Population Medical Research Institute, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of molecular sciences | Year: 2016

Polymorphisms in genes involved in the oxidative stress response may partially explain the documented heterogeneous associations between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and asthma and allergies in children. We investigated whether the GSTT1, GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms modified the associations between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and asthma, wheeze and hay fever in adolescence. We used a birth cohort of 620 high risk infants from the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. TRAP exposure during the first year of life was defined as the cumulative length of major roads within 150 m of each participants residence during the first year of life. Wheeze, asthma and hay fever were measured at ages 12 (n = 370) and 18 (n = 434) years. The associations and interactions with glutathione S-transferases (GST s) were investigated using regression models. Overall, there was no relationship between TRAP exposure during the first year of life and current asthma, wheeze and hay fever at ages 12 or 18 years. However, in GSTT1 null carriers, every 100 m increase in cumulative lengths of major road exposure during the first year of life was associated with a 2.31-fold increased risk of wheeze and a 2.15-fold increased risk of asthma at 12 years. TRAP is associated with some respiratory outcomes in carriers of genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress metabolism genes.


Manners D.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Hui J.,Busselton Population Medical Research Institute | Hui J.,University of Western Australia | Hunter M.,Busselton Population Medical Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2016

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of ever-smokers who are eligible for lung cancer screening in an Australian cohort, and to evaluate the effect of spirometry in defining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when assessing screening eligibility. Design: Cross-sectional study of 3586 individuals aged 50–68 years who live in the Busselton Shire of Western Australia. Outcomes: Proportion of ever-smokers eligible for lung cancer screening based on United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria, and PLCOm2012 lung cancer risk > 1.5%. The effect of using self-reported COPD, symptoms consistent with COPD, or spirometry to define COPD for screening eligibility according to the PLCOm2012 criteria. Results: Of ever-smokers aged 55–68 years, 254 (20.1%) would be eligible for screening according to USPSTF criteria; fewer would be eligible according to PLCOm2012 criteria (225, 17.9%; P = 0.004). This is equivalent to 8.9–10.0% of the total population aged 55–68 years, which suggests about 450 000 individuals in Australia may be eligible for lung cancer screening. The proportions of eligible participants were not significantly different whether spirometry results or symptoms consistent with COPD were used to determine PLCOm2012 risk. Conclusions: The proportion of ever-smokers in this population who were eligible for lung cancer screening was 17.9–20.1%. Using symptoms to define COPD is an appropriate surrogate measure for spirometry when determining the presence of COPD in this population. There are significant challenges for policy makers on how to identify and recruit these eligible individuals from the wider population. © 2016 AMPCo Pty Ltd. Produced with Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhu K.,Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital | Zhu K.,University of Western Australia | Hunter M.,Busselton Population Medical Research Institute | Hunter M.,University of Western Australia | And 7 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2016

Summary: The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone. Introduction: The relationship between obesity and BMD is complex. FMI (fat mass (kg) / height (m)2) is a more accurate measure of fatness than BMI, and depending on body composition, some individuals have discordant BMI/FMI categories. We examined associations between FMI, BMI and BMD in participants in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study. Methods: Body composition and BMD of the hip, spine and total body were measured using DXA in 3045 participants (1644 females) aged 45–67 years. Using standard BMI/FMI categories, the participants were classified as underweight/fat deficit, normal, overweight/excess fat, obese I and obese II–III. Results: BMI and FMI categories were concordant in 77.3 % of females and 71.2 % of males. There were 12.9 % females and 13.2 % males in a higher FMI than BMI category (high body fat for BMI), whereas 9.8 % females and 15.6 % males were in a lower category (low body fat for BMI). Females with high body fat for BMI had significantly lower covariate-adjusted BMD at the femoral neck, total hip and total body (differences of 3.8, 5.1 and 2.6 %, respectively, all P < 0.05) than females with low body fat for BMI and lower total body BMD than women with concordant FMI/BMI (by 1.4 %, P = 0.04). In males, BMD did not differ significantly between those who were concordant or discordant for FMI/BMI categories. Conclusion: In women (but not men) with discordant FMI/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone. © 2016 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation


PubMed | University of Western Australia, Busselton Population Medical Research Institute, Fiona Stanley Hospital and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Medical journal of Australia | Year: 2016

To estimate the proportion of ever-smokers who are eligible for lung cancer screening in an Australian cohort, and to evaluate the effect of spirometry in defining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when assessing screening eligibility.Cross-sectional study of 3586 individuals aged 50-68 years who live in the Busselton Shire of Western Australia.Proportion of ever-smokers eligible for lung cancer screening based on United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) criteria, and PLCOm2012 lung cancer risk >1.5%. The effect of using self-reported COPD, symptoms consistent with COPD, or spirometry to define COPD for screening eligibility according to the PLCOm2012 criteria.Of ever-smokers aged 55-68 years, 254 (20.1%) would be eligible for screening according to USPSTF criteria; fewer would be eligible according to PLCOm2012 criteria (225, 17.9%; P = 0.004). This is equivalent to 8.9-10.0% of the total population aged 55-68 years, which suggests about 450 000 individuals in Australia may be eligible for lung cancer screening. The proportions of eligible participants were not significantly different whether spirometry results or symptoms consistent with COPD were used to determine PLCOm2012 risk.The proportion of ever-smokers in this population who were eligible for lung cancer screening was 17.9-20.1%. Using symptoms to define COPD is an appropriate surrogate measure for spirometry when determining the presence of COPD in this population. There are significant challenges for policy makers on how to identify and recruit these eligible individuals from the wider population.


PubMed | University of Western Australia, Busselton Population Medical Research Institute, Fiona Stanley Hospital and Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA | Year: 2016

The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.The relationship between obesity and BMD is complex. FMI (fat mass (kg)/height (m)Body composition and BMD of the hip, spine and total body were measured using DXA in 3045 participants (1644 females) aged 45-67years. Using standard BMI/FMI categories, the participants were classified as underweight/fat deficit, normal, overweight/excess fat, obese I and obese II-III.BMI and FMI categories were concordant in 77.3% of females and 71.2% of males. There were 12.9% females and 13.2% males in a higher FMI than BMI category (high body fat for BMI), whereas 9.8% females and 15.6% males were in a lower category (low body fat for BMI). Females with high body fat for BMI had significantly lower covariate-adjusted BMD at the femoral neck, total hip and total body (differences of 3.8, 5.1 and 2.6%, respectively, all P<0.05) than females with low body fat for BMI and lower total body BMD than women with concordant FMI/BMI (by 1.4%, P=0.04). In males, BMD did not differ significantly between those who were concordant or discordant for FMI/BMI categories.In women (but not men) with discordant FMI/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.

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