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Vanky E.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Vanky E.,Institute for Laboratory Medicine | Stridsklev S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Stridsklev S.,Institute for Laboratory Medicine | And 17 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: Metformin is widely prescribed to pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in an attempt to reduce pregnancy complications. Metformin is not approved for this indication, and evidence for this practice is lacking. Objectives:Our objective was to test the hypothesis that metformin, from first trimester to delivery, reduces pregnancy complications in women with PCOS. Design and Setting: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study at 11 secondary care centers. Participants: The participants were 257 women with PCOS, in the first trimester of pregnancy, aged 18-42 yr. Intervention: We randomly assigned 274 singleton pregnancies (in 257 women) to receive metformin or placebo, from first trimester to delivery. Main Outcome Measures: The prevalence of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, and a composite of these three outcomes is reported. Results: Preeclampsia prevalence was 7.4% in the metformin group and 3.7% in the placebo group (3.7%; 95% CI, -1.7-9.2) (P = 0.18). Preterm delivery prevalence was 3.7% in the metformin group and 8.2% in the placebo group (-4.4%; 95%, CI, -10.1-1.2) (P = 0.12). Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence was 17.6% in the metformin group and 16.9% in the placebo group (0.8%;95% CI, -8.6 -10.2) (P = 0.87). The composite primary endpoint prevalence was 25.9 and 24.4%, respectively (1.5%; 95% CI, -8.9-11.3) (P = 0.78). Women in the metformin group gained less weight during pregnancy compared with those in the placebo group. There was no difference in fetal birth weight between the groups. Conclusions: Metformin treatment from first trimester to delivery did not reduce pregnancy complications in PCOS. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society. Source


Sorensen P.S.,Copenhagen University | Lycke J.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Eralinna J.-P.,Suomen Terveystalo Clinical Research | Edland A.,Buskerud Hospital | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2011

Treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with interferon beta is only partly effective. We aimed to establish whether add-on of simvastatin, a statin with anti-inflammatory properties, improves this efficacy. Methods: We enrolled treatment-naive patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in a multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial of simvastatin (80 mg daily) as add-on treatment to intramuscular interferon beta-1a (30 μg weekly). After starting treatment with interferon beta, patients were randomly assigned (in computer-generated blocks of four patients) to simvastatin 80 mg per day or placebo for 1-3 years. Patients and treating and evaluating physicians were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was annual rate of documented relapses; analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00492765. Findings: We randomly assigned 307 patients to interferon beta plus simvastatin (n=151) or plus placebo (n=156). Annual rate of documented relapses was 0·19 (95% CI 0·13 to 0·28) in the simvastatin group and 0·14 (95% CI 0·09 to 0·23) in the placebo group (absolute difference 0·059, 95% CI -0·21 to 0·09; p=0·35). Time to first documented relapse (20th percentile) was 18·1 months in patients on simvastatin and 21·5 months in those on placebo (hazard ratio 1·21, 95% CI 0·74 to 1·99; p=0·51). Mean number of new or enlarging T2 lesions was 2·96 in the simvastatin group and 2·52 in the placebo group (ratio of new lesions, 1·17, 95% CI 8·89 to 1·55; p=0·25). Eight (6%) patients on simvastatin and 17 (13%) on placebo had no disease activity (odds ratio 0·42, 95% CI 0·17 to 1·00; p=0·05). No unexpected adverse events were seen. Generally, adverse events were mild and there were no group differences in infections or musculoskeletal disorders, including myalgia (five [3%] patients on simvastatin and nine [6%] on placebo). Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria were not reported and there were no differences in serum creatine phosphokinase. Interpretation: We found no beneficial effect of simvastatin as add-on therapy to interferon beta-1a. Although unlikely, we can not exclude that combination of other statins with other disease-modifying drugs still could be beneficial. Funding: Biogen Idec. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Strom E.H.,University of Oslo | Sund S.,Forde Central Hospital | Reier-Nilsen M.,Buskerud Hospital | Dorje C.,University of Oslo | Leren T.P.,University of Oslo
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2011

Familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is a rare metabolic disease with lipid deposition in several organs. The authors report a man with hypertension and proteinuria. Renal biopsy revealed glomerular changes, including peculiar thrombus-like deposits, consistent with LCAT deficiency. He was found to be compound heterozygous for two mutations of the LCAT gene. He received a kidney graft from his father. The authors also describe LCAT deficiency-related lesions in the explanted native kidneys and in biopsies at 2 days, 6 weeks, and 1 year after transplantation. The morphology of this disease is characteristic, and the diagnosis should be suspected from the ultrastructural findings. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source


Haakensen V.D.,University of Oslo | Biong M.,University of Oslo | Lingjaerde O.C.,University of Oslo | Holmen M.M.,University of Oslo | And 13 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Introduction: Mammographic density (MD), as assessed from film screen mammograms, is determined by the relative content of adipose, connective and epithelial tissue in the female breast. In epidemiological studies, a high percentage of MD confers a four to six fold risk elevation of developing breast cancer, even after adjustment for other known breast cancer risk factors. However, the biologic correlates of density are little known.Methods: Gene expression analysis using whole genome arrays was performed on breast biopsies from 143 women; 79 women with no malignancy (healthy women) and 64 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, both included from mammographic centres. Percent MD was determined using a previously validated, computerized method on scanned mammograms. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was performed to identify genes influencing MD and a linear regression model was used to assess the independent contribution from different variables to MD.Results: SAM-analysis identified 24 genes differentially expressed between samples from breasts with high and low MD. These genes included three uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) genes and the oestrogen receptor gene (ESR1). These genes were down-regulated in samples with high MD compared to those with low MD. The UGT gene products, which are known to inactivate oestrogen metabolites, were also down-regulated in tumour samples compared to samples from healthy individuals. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the UGT genes associated with the expression of UGT and other genes in their vicinity were identified.Conclusions: Three UGT enzymes were lower expressed both in breast tissue biopsies from healthy women with high MD and in biopsies from newly diagnosed breast cancers. The association was strongest amongst young women and women using hormonal therapy. UGT2B10 predicts MD independently of age, hormone therapy and parity. Our results indicate that down-regulation of UGT genes in women exposed to female sex hormones is associated with high MD and might increase the risk of breast cancer. © 2010 Haakensen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Gjone H.,University of Oslo | Diseth T.H.,University of Oslo | Fausa O.,University of Oslo | Novik T.S.,Buskerud Hospital | Heiberg A.,University of Oslo
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2011

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in a parent requires diagnostic follow-up and treatment from adolescence in possible gene carriers in order to prevent cancer development. A nationwide sample (n = 22) of adolescent FAP offspring including 85% of eligible individuals aged 11-20 years and their parents were interviewed with regard to adolescent mental health, psychosocial functioning, knowledge about FAP and genetic risk, and experiences with testing and surgery. Thirty-six percent of the FAP offspring fulfilled criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. For adolescents older than 15 years, this was increased relative to a comparison group with Hirschprungs disease and a general population sample. Neither genetic testing nor FAP diagnosis in adolescent FAP-offspring differentiated significantly between those who fulfilled the criteria and those who did not for psychiatric diagnosis, while a global score of chronic family difficulties did. This may imply that experiencing parental illness more than inheriting FAP is a perceived stressor for adolescent FAP offspring. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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