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Busia, Uganda

Busitema University , is a university in Uganda. It is one of the eight public universities and degree-awarding institutions in the country. The list includes the following : 1. Makerere University 2. Uganda Management Institute 3. Mbarara University 4. Kyambogo University 5. Gulu University 6. Busitema University 7. Kigumba Petroleum Institute and 8. Muni University . Busitema University has as its focus, the instruction of agricultural science, agricultural mechanization and agribusiness. Wikipedia.

An on-farm pollination experiment was conducted during the June-August and November-February blooming seasons of 2007 to 2008, in 30 small-scale coffee fields characterised by different habitat and vegetation types. The study was conducted in order to determine the best pollinator groups for coffee in Uganda and to collect relevant field information and determine the pollination efficiency of different bee species. Results indicate that across blooming seasons, coffee flowers were visited by 24-36 bee species. Hypotrigona gribodoi was the most frequent flower visitor, comprising over 60% of 5941 bee-visits recorded. Foraging rate and pollination speed varied among bee species. Solitary bees foraged on more flowers than social bees, but they spent less time per flower visited. Solitary bees visited more coffee trees and fields, but deposited less pollen, whereas social bees visited less trees and coffee fields in the landscape, but deposited more pollen on flowers. Fruit set was of 87%, 64% and 0.9%, respectively, in hand-cross pollination, open pollination and controlled-pollination treatments. Fruit abortion due to self-pollination was insignificant in this study. There was variability in pollination efficiency of different bee species. Pollination efficiency varied more significantly with sociality than with other bee functional traits and was not significantly influenced by tongue length and bee body size. Single-flower visits by social and solitary bees resulted in 89.7% and 68.14% fruit set, respectively. The most efficient bee species was Meliponula ferruginea (98.3%) followed by Meliponula nebulata (97.1%). Thus, very good pollinator species were wild social bees (mainly stingless bees) as opposed to honeybees and solitary bees that were previously reported to be the best pollinators of coffee in Panama and Indonesia. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of the bee pollen storage features may explain the difference in foraging behaviour activities and in pollination efficiency of social and solitary afrotropical bee species visiting lowland coffee in Uganda. In addition, pollination efficiency was influenced by land-use intensity, field management systems and habitat types found in the immediate surroundings of coffee fields, but not by coffee field size, coffee genotypes and mass blooming wild vegetation. It is recommended to farmers to adopt pollinator-friendly conservation and farming practices such as keeping an uncultivated portion (25%-30%) of their farms as pollinator reservoirs, protecting semi-natural habitats found in the vicinity of coffee fields, as well as promoting high on-farm tree cover to benefit a functionally diverse pollinator community. © 2014 Collegium Palynologicum Scandinavicum. Source

Munyuli M.B.T.,Busitema University
International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystems Services and Management

A study was conducted in 26 sites on agricultural landscapes in Central Uganda to collect baseline information about important drivers of butterfly richness and abundance. Data were collected for 1 year (2006) using line transects walk-and-counts, fruit-bait traps and handnets sampling methods. A total of 57,439 individuals belonging to 331 species were collected. Totals of 127, 131 and 299 species were recorded in transect counts, banana-bait and handnets, respectively. Of the 57,439 individuals registered, 75%, 19% and 6% were recorded in transect counts, handnet and banana-bait trap, respectively. Butterfly abundance and species richness were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by climatic factors (rainfall, temperature) in previous years (2004 and 2005) and richness and abundance of wild nectaring plants. Butterfly species richness (not the abundance) decreased with land-use intensity (p < 0.05) and was positively related to the cover of semi-natural habitats. Both butterfly species richness and abundance declined sharply with forest distance. Nearby forest remnants and high cover of semi-natural habitats are thus important for conservation of butterflies in coffee-banana agroforestry systems and farmers should be encouraged to protect such resources. © 2013 © Taylor & Francis. Source

Rwawiire S.,Technical University of Liberec | Rwawiire S.,Busitema University | Tomkova B.,Technical University of Liberec
Journal of the Textile Institute

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 2005 proclaimed that Ugandan barkcloth largely produced from mutuba tree (Ficus natalensis) as a "Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity". An exploratory investigation of thermo-physiological and comfort properties of barkcloth, a nonwoven material produced through a series of pummeling processes from mutuba tree in Uganda, is fronted. Barkcloth was extracted from the F. natalensis tree in Nsangwa village, Buyijja parish in Mpigi district, Central Uganda. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, thermal absorptivity, thermal resistance, fabric thickness, and peak heat flow density were measured using an Alambeta device, whereas a Permetest device was used for the measurement of the moisture vapour permeability and evaporation resistance. The study was carried out under relative humidity of 40% and at a laboratory room temperature of 24°C and the results show that the thermal conductivity is in the range of cotton fabrics rendering barkcloth from F. natalensis, a comfortable fabric. The lower value of thermal absorptivity of barkcloth compared to the value of cotton renders the fabric a warm feeling when in contact with the skin. Barkcloth had a higher moisture vapor permeability compared to cotton and other fabrics, meaning its clothing comfort properties are reasonable. © 2013 © 2013 The Textile Institute. Source

Okalang U.,Busitema University | Nanteza A.,Makerere University | Matovu E.,Makerere University | Lubega G.W.,Makerere University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) also known as Nagana is a devastating disease among domestic animals in large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa causing loses in milk and meat production as well as traction power. However, there is currently no commercial vaccine against AAT. The parasites have also developed resistance to some of the drugs in use. Moreover, the use of affordable computer-aided wet bench methods in the search for vaccine and/or new drug targets against this disease have not yet been fully explored in developing countries. This study, therefore, explored the use of PCR to screen a freshly prepared bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) expression library for coding sequences followed by bioinformatics analyses specifying the functions and importance of these proteins to parasite survival. Eleven protein coding sequences were identifed from twenty nine purifed clones. The putative retro transposon hot spot protein 4 (RHSP 4) was the only protein with a fully annotated DNA sequence. All the others were hypothetical or had partial or unqualifed annotations. RHSP 4 and pyru-vate dehydrogenase E1 component, alpha sub-unit (PDE1α) are involved in aerobic respiration whereas succinyl-Co A-3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase mitochondrial precursor (SKTMP) is predicted to be involved in ketone body catabolism. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase (αMT) have been predicted in cysteine biosynthesis and vesicular transport respectively. The functions of the hypothetical proteins encountered have neither been experimentally determined nor predicted. We hypothesize that both CBS and PDE1α are good drug targets. Overall, about 300 plates are required to PCR screen the entire Trypanosoma brucei genome in approximately eight months. This method is therefore, applicable and affordable in the search for new drug targets under conditions of limited resources among developing countries. Source

Butterflies are believed to be important pollinators because they are nectar/pollen feeders of both wild and cultivated plant species occurring in natural and managed systems. However, there exist very little knowledge about their spatio-temporal distribution and diversity in agricultural systems of Sub-Sahara Africa and in Uganda. There are no protocols to monitor the status of good pollinator species in these systems. The main aim of this study was to collect baseline information about indicator species of butterfly community in coffee-banana farming systems of central Uganda. Data were collected for 1year (2006) using banana fruit-bait traps, transect walk-and-counts and hand-nets sampling methods. Indicator species of farmland habitats were identified using indicator value method. Species that emerged as significant (P<0.05) suitable indicators were Catopsilia florella, Junonia sophia, Bicyclus safitza, Acraea acerata, Eurema hecabe, Ypthima albida, Zizula hylax, Acraea ventura, Eurema brigitta, Neptidopsis ophione, Junonia eonone, Zizeeria kynsna, Cupidopsis cissus, Junonia chorimene and Acrae uvui. These ubiquitous species were recommended to monitoring programmes as indicator species of butterfly communities delivering pollination services to cultivated and wild plants in farmland environments of central Uganda. Transect count was proposed as the best sampling technique to monitor butterfly species that may be involved in successful pollination activities in farmlands. There is a need to develop strategies to protect linear and nonlinear natural and semi-natural habitats to offer sufficient refugia and breeding sites to butterflies inhabiting farmlands. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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