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Milan, Italy

Helmers E.,Trier University of Applied Sciences | Dietz J.,Trier University of Applied Sciences | Hartard S.,Business Competence
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2015

Purpose: While almost all life cycle assessment (LCA) studies published so far are based on generic vehicles, type approval energy consumption as well as emission data, and application scenarios related to standardized laboratory-based driving cycles, this projects aims at quantifying the LCA based on a real-world vehicle composition and energy consumption data measured before and after the electric conversion of a mini class car. Furthermore, consequences of a second life of a vehicle’s glider on the environmental impact were investigated. Methods: After having driven 100,000 km, a Smart was converted from combustion to electric in a laboratory project. The inventory was developed grounded upon materials data from laboratory measurements during the conversion process as well as on real-world energy consumption data prior and after the conversion. Three base models are compared in this life cycle impact assessment: a conventional new Smart (combustion engine), a new electric Smart, and a Smart converted from combustion engine to electric. Together with two sensitivity analyses (four different electricity mixes as well as urban vs. mixed driving conditions) and two EOL treatments, 36 scenarios have been quantified. The inventory is based on Ecoinvent database v 2.2 as a background system and includes raw material extraction. Results and discussion: In urban use, the modeled battery electric vehicle has a favorable environmental impact compared to the ICEV even when charged with the German electricity mix of the year 2013. The advantage in summed up endpoints of the converted Smart is 23 % vs. the new electric Smart on average for the mixed driving conditions and 26 % for the urban driving conditions, respectively. Over a variety of impact categories, electricity consumption during battery cell production in China as well as impacts due to microelectronic components dominated the life cycle. Results for 18 midpoint categories, endpoints for damages to human health, to resource quality and to ecosystem quality as well as the Single score endpoints are reported. Conclusions: This investigation points out that real-world treatments in inventory development can more specifically outline the environmental advantages of the electric car. The electric conversion of a used combustion engine vehicle can save an additional 16 % (CO2-eq) and 19 % (single score endpoints) of the environmental impact over a lifetime, respectively, when compared with the new BEV. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source


Haroske G.,Business Competence | Diederichs U.,University of Rostock | Petranek V.,Brno University of Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Many structures resting on pile foundations, which are surrounded by water in the soil for decades or centuries. In the context of status explorations or assessments questions arise concerning their conservation status and their durability. - The paper presents the results of extensive in situ studies and laboratory tests, which were performed on older wooden pile foundations of port facilities, bridges and building foundations in the framework of planning of maintenance measures. In the focus of this work are studies on the biotic attack to the woods and its effect on the density and strength characteristics of the piles. Inter alia, the investigations have revealed that the wood under the said anaerobic conditions suffers deterioration due to bacterial attack, rarely by higher fungi. As discovered by microscopic investigations on thin sections, the bacterial attack appears as a partial degradation in the individual wood cells, especially in the middle lamella of the late wood cells and the dots. As indicated by the results of the density and strength test results, the bacterial attack is - compared to fungal attack - a very slow but steady process. It causes also strength reduction of the woods and losses of the load bearing capacity of the structures, and has to be taken into account in the static assessments. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source


Won S.T.S.,Business Competence | Jie F.,University of Science and Technology Beijing
SEAISI Quarterly (South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute) | Year: 2010

Since 1993, many different of types Electric Arc Furnaces have been operated in China. The annual production of EAF steel was about 50 million tons in 2009. Most of the Electric Arc Furnaces in China have adapted hot metal charging (HMC) technology. The background, advancement, furnace type, charging way, optimum charging ratio of hot metal and upcoming challenges of HMC process were introduced in the present paper for reference. Source


Kohnert L.,Business Competence
Indian Concrete Journal | Year: 2011

Some of the important considerations while producing attractive concrete surfaces through the addition of pigments are discussed. One of the main demands made on the pigment is that it is absolutely resistant to alkalis, or the coloring effect of the pigment must not be impaired by the lime content of the cement. White colors can be created with titanium dioxide pigments, and blues with lightfast pigments if the concrete is made with a light-colored cement. Purchase of all the cement from the same supplier is recommended as this practice can eliminate any fluctuations in color due to differences in the color of the cement. Accurate control of the water supply in a concrete mixing unit is an integral part of efficient concrete production. Care should be taken with the choice of release agent, if too much release agent is applied, it can get on to the fresh concrete and stain the surface. Source


Schulv H.,Business Competence
SEAISI Quarterly (South East Asia Iron and Steel Institute) | Year: 2011

The SGL market knowledge contains a wide range of Electric Arc Furnace installations. Design and operational basics of more than 800 melting furnaces (AC and DC) were correlated with the Graphite Electrode application (450-800 mm) to evaluate technical trends and developments. This paper describes how to use the operational experience to compare the individual melting furnace with Benchmark furnaces. By this, the status of the operational effectiveness will be defined and compared with other furnaces. Further, the results of the Benchmark Analysis helps to define the next development steps - without or with capital investments. Source

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