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Castro A.J.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Benitez A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Hayes P.M.,Oregon State University | Viega L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Wright L.,Busch Agricultural Resources Inc.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2010

A degree of seed dormancy (SD) is required for malting barley varieties in Uruguay, and many other parts of the world, in order to prevent pre-harvest sprouting. Water sensitivity (WS) (a decrease in germination under excess water) is a related trait that can create problems at the malthouse. Both traits are affected by environmental conditions during grain filling. We used a population of 100 doubled haploid lines derived from the cross BCD47 × Baronesse to map qualitative trait loci (QTL) affecting SD, WS, and malting quality traits. Preliminary experiments revealed that BCD47 has low SD and Baronesse has high SD. WS for these accessions was not known before this research. A major SD QTL detected in four experiments is on chromosome 5H, with BCD47 contributing the low dormancy allele. Four other regions with QTL effects for SD were mapped, but these QTL were significant in data from only one or two environments. Four regions were detected with QTL effects for WS, but only two in 5H coincident with the SD QTL, and 3H were significant in more than one environment. SD and WS were affected by the average temperature at the end of the grain-filling period, with higher temperatures associated with lower values for SD. At the same region on 5H where SD and WS QTL were detected, we found significant QTL for malt extract, α-amylase activity, β-glucans, FAN, Kolbach index, wort turbidity and protein content, with BCD47 contributing favourable alleles for all traits. These results underscore the importance of environmental effects on both SD and WS as well as the difficulties of combining good malting quality with adequate levels of SD and WS. © CSIRO 2010. Source

Nair S.,Washington State University | Ullrich S.E.,Washington State University | Blake T.K.,Montana State University | Cooper B.,Busch Agricultural Resources Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Cereal Chemistry | Year: 2010

Kernel hardness is an important trait influencing postharvest handling, processing, and food product quality in cereal grains. Though well-characterized in wheat, the basis of kernel hardness is still not completely understood in barley. Kernels of 959 barley breeding lines were evaluated for hardness using the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS). Barley lines exhibited a broad range of hardness index (HI) values at 30.1-91.9. Distribution of kernel diameter and weight were 1.7-2.9 mm and 24.9-53.7 mg, respectively. The proportion of hull was 10.2-20.7%. From the 959 breeding lines, 10 hulled spring barley lines differing in HI values (30.1-91.2) were selected to study the associations of HI with proportion of hull, kernel weight, diameter, vitreousness, protein, β-glucan, and amylose content. Vitreousness, evaluated visually using a light box, showed a clear distinction between hard and soft kernels. Hard kernels appeared translucent, while soft kernels appeared opaque when illuminated from below on the light box. Kernel brightness (L*), determined as an indicator of kernel vitreousness, showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.83, P < 0.01) with HI. Protein, β-glucan, amylose content, proportion of hull, kernel weight, and diameter did not show any significant association with HI. © 2010 AACC International, Inc. Source

Massman J.,University of Minnesota | Cooper B.,Busch Agricultural Resources Inc. | Horsley R.,North Dakota State University | Neate S.,North Dakota State University | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in bi-parental mapping populations has had limited success for improving complex quantitative traits with low to moderate heritability. Association mapping in contemporary breeding germplasm may lead to more effective marker strategies for crop improvement. To test this approach, we conducted association mapping of two complex traits with moderate heritability; Fusarium head blight (FHB) severity and the grain concentration of mycotoxin associated with disease, deoxynivalenol (DON). To map FHB resistance in barley, 768 breeding lines were evaluated in 2006 and 2007 in four locations. All lines were genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers and QTL were mapped using a mixed model that accounts for relatedness among lines. Average linkage disequilibrium within the breeding germplasm extended beyond 4 cM. Four QTL were identified for FHB severity and eight QTL were identified for the DON concentration in two independent sets of breeding lines. The QTL effects were small, explaining 1-3% of the phenotypic variation, as might be expected for complex polygenic traits. We show that using breeding germplasm to map QTL can complement bi-parental mapping studies by providing independent validation, mapping QTL with more precision, resolving questions of linkage and pleiotropy, and identifying genetic markers that can be applied immediately in crop improvement. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Graebner R.C.,Oregon State University | Wise M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Cuesta-Marcos A.,Oregon State University | Geniza M.,Montana State University | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The Genome-Wide Association Studies approach was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci associated with tocochromanol concentrations using a panel of 1,466 barley accessions. All major tocochromanol types-α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherol and tocotrienol-were assayed. We found 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the concentration of one or more of these tocochromanol forms in barley, seven of which were within 2 cM of sequences homologous to cloned genes associated with tocochromanol production in barley and/or other plants. These associations confirmed a prior report based on bi-parental QTL mapping. This knowledge will aid future efforts to better understand the role of tocochromanols in barley, with specific reference to abiotic stress resistance. It will also be useful in developing barley varieties with higher tocochromanol concentrations, although at current recommended daily consumption amounts, barley would not be an effective sole source of vitamin E. However, it could be an important contributor in the context of whole grains in a balanced diet. Source

Hamblin M.T.,Cornell University | Close T.J.,University of California at Riverside | Bhat P.R.,Monsanto Corporation | Chao S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 14 more authors.
Crop Science | Year: 2010

Previous studies have shown that there is considerable population structure in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), with the strongest structure corresponding to differences in row number and growth habit. U.S. barley breeding programs include six-row and two-row types and winter and spring types in all combinations. To facilitate mapping of complex traits in breeding germplasm, 1816 barley lines from 10 U.S. breeding programs were scored with 1536 sin-gle nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays. The number of SNPs segregating within breeding programs varied from 854 to 1398. Model-based analysis of population structure showed the expected clustering by row type and growth habit; however, there was additional structure, some of which corresponded to the breeding programs. The model that fit the data best had seven populations: three two-row spring, two six-row spring, and two six-row winter. Average linkage disequilibrium (LD) within populations decayed over a distance of 20 to 30 cM, but some populations showed long-range LD suggestive of admixture. Genetic distance (allele-sharing) between populations varied from 0.11 (six-row spring vs. six-row spring) to 0.45 (two-row spring vs. six-row spring). Analyses of pairwise LD revealed that the phase of allelic associations was not well correlated between populations, particularly when their allele-sharing distance was >0.2. These results suggest that pooling divergent barley populations for purposes of association mapping may be inadvisable. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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