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Jang E.,University of Birmingham | Jang E.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Alam M.S.,University of Birmingham | Harrison R.M.,University of Birmingham
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are currently generating a great deal of interest because of their recognised toxicity, including carcinogenicity. In this study, source apportionment (SA) has been carried out using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) with a dataset of 29 individual PAH (sum of vapour and particulate forms) collected by the UK National Network between 2002 and 2006. Analysis of data from 14 urban sites revealed four major source categories corresponding to unburned petroleum, diesel combustion, wood combustion and coal combustion. When a separate set of sites known to be influenced by local industrial sources was analysed, three source categories were identified corresponding to the unburned petroleum, diesel combustion and coal combustion seen in the full data analysis. When SA data were applied to the individual sites, the estimated apportionment could be explained in terms of local emission characteristics. Unburned petroleum showed the highest contribution to the sum of PAH, averaging 51.9% across the network, but benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was more influenced by the coal combustion source which contributed 59.5% across the entire network. At the subset of sites with local industrial influence, industry was both the main contributor to the sum of PAH (accounting for 48.4% of PAH mass) and of BaP (67.9% of mass). A spatial analysis was also conducted in which the traffic source was evaluated by the difference between a roadside and a nearby urban background site, the urban source by difference between urban background and a rural site, and the industrial source by difference between a site close to a major steelworks subtracting data from a local urban background site. This showed considerable similarity between the net urban contribution and the road traffic factor, and between the net industrial contribution and the PMF coal factor profile. In both cases the congener profiles corresponded fairly well to UK national emissions inventory data. When PMF was applied separately to a more recent dataset for particle-bound PAH (2008-10) in three site groupings, it was able to distinguish the domestic coal burning source from the industry-related coal combustion source. For the urban sites, vehicle exhausts contributed the largest amount of particulate PAH and BaP across the whole year, with significant attribution to domestic coal combustion seen in the cold season. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Lee Y.-S.,Dong - A University | Park D.-J.,Dong - A University | Park D.-J.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Choi Y.-L.,Dong - A University
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

A maltotriose-producing α-amylase, AmyA, from a newly isolated bacterial strain Microbulbifer thermotolerans DAU221 was purified and characterized in the heterologous host, Escherichia coli, using the pCold I vector. The amyA gene encoded a 761-residue protein composed of a 33 amino acid secretion signal peptide. The purified α-amylase with a molecular mass of 80 kDa, approximately, shared a sequence motif characteristic of the glycoside hydrolase family 13. The enzyme was optimally active, at 50 °C in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0), by the traditional one factor-at-a-time method. But the optimal conditions of time, temperature, and pH for production of maltotriose from soluble starch were 1.76 h, 44.95 °C, and pH 6.35 by response surface methodology, respectively. Maltotriose, as the major enzyme reaction product, was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The enzyme was found to be inhibited by the addition of 10 mM Cu2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, Zn2+, and EDTA, but exhibited extreme stability toward hexane. The Km and Vmax values for the hydrolysis of soluble starch were 1.08 mg/mL and 1.736 mmol maltotriose/mg protein/min, respectively. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Park D.-J.,Dong - A University | Park D.-J.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Lee Y.-S.,Dong - A University | Choi Y.-L.,Dong - A University
Protein Journal | Year: 2013

Paenibacillus xylanilyticus KJ-03 isolated from konjac field, showed β-glucosidase activity on tryptic soy agar plate supplemented with 0.1 % esculin and 0.25 % ferric ammonium citrate. A genome library was constructed to obtain the β-glucosidase gene and a recombinant clone, pGlc2-3 was selected. The 2,247 bp gene encoding KJ-03 β-glucosidase consisted of 749 amino acids. The deduced amino acids of BglA were 61 % homologous with that of the β-glucosidase from Bacillus cereus AH1272, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 3. His-tagged β-glucosidase was purified by using His-Trap column and characterized. KJ-03 β-glucosidase was showed as a single band with about 82 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme has optimal activity at 20 °C and pH 7.0 using p-NPβG and 72 % of the maximal activity was still remaining at 10 °C. The β-glucosidase has optimal activity at low temperatures indicating that it is a cold-active enzyme. The substrate specificity showed that the purified enzyme hydrolyzed aryl β-glucoside substrates and isoflavones such as daidzin and genistin. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. Source


Jeong J.W.,Busan St Marys Medical Center | Hwang Y.H.,Busan St Marys Medical Center | Cho K.S.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Jung M.J.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | And 3 more authors.
Korean Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the viral etiology of acute respiratory illnesses and to determine epidemiology in outpatients in Busan, Korea. Methods : We collected nasal wash samples from 990 patients who visited the hospital for acute respiratory illnesses between January 2007 and December 2008. Extracted DNA or RNA from specimens was used for viral detection by an RT-PCR method. Results : Of a total of 990 samples, viruses were detected in 351 cases (35.5%). The ratio of male to female was 1.6:1 and 93.7% were less than 5 years old. Rhinovirus was detected year-round in 202 cases (57.5%), respiratory syncytial virus from October to March in 57 cases (16.2%), adenovirus year-round in 37 cases (10.5%), influenza virus from December to April in 21 cases (6%), bocavirus from January to August in 15 cases (4.3%), parainfluenza virus from April to July in 9 cases (2.6%), coronavirus from January to July in 7 cases (2%), and enterovirus from June to September in 3 cases (0.9%). Conclusion : We identified the etiology and epidemiology of viruses that caused the acute respiratory diseases that were prevalent in Busan, 2007-2008. Further surveillance will be necessary. Source


Choi S.-H.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Jeong J.-E.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Yun N.-N.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | Kim N.-H.,Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health and Environment | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology and Virology | Year: 2013

We analyzed the occurrence of enteric viruses and bacteria at 22 places of drinkable groundwater (civil defense emergency water-supply facility), 8 places of the groundwater used for drinking water in group food services, and 10 places of spring-water. When the 40 concentrated samples were analyzed using nested RT-PCR and real-time RT PCR methods, norovirus and other enteric viruses were not detected in all samples tested. The detection percentages for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica of fecal indicator were 57.5%, 22.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Colipages were not detected. These results suggest that high levels of fecal indicator bacteria in groundwater and spring-water are not directly related to occurrence of enteric viruses. Source

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