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Stuttgart, Germany

Schmidberger G.,Helene Meyer Ring 7A | Muller J.,Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald | Stratz C.,Buro fur okologische Studien
Waldokologie Online | Year: 2010

As part of the BIOKLIM Project, data was obtained for various groups of animals and plants, as well as for environmental factors. The following analysis concerns only the molluscs (Gastropoda, Bivalvia). Altitude, stand age, magnesium and pH values of soil were identified as main influencing variables for abundance of individuals, using quasi-Poisson models. The parameter "number of plant species" (VegRich) and management type also affect the species number. Individual species are influenced by very different factors, resulting partly from their highly specialized habitat requirements, so that their abundance can not always be described directly in terms of the measured and collated influencing variables. The mollusc-assemblages are determined most of all by altitude above sea level, temperature and light conditions (openness of canopy), as demonstrated using several different methods of statistical analysis.

Geidezis L.,BUND Projektburo Grunes Band | Bausch T.,Alpenforschungsinstitut GmbH | Schiumprecht H.,Buro fur okologische Studien
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2011

The Green Belt along the former inner-German border hosts high species richness and forms a unique, interconnected system of valuable habitats. It thus also offers high recreation value for people. The aim of the testing and development project titled 'The Green Belt Experience' was to achieve sustainable touristic development of the Green Belt in a 'nature-culturehistory' context. This approach boosts public awareness and regional value creation, thus enhancing acceptance for the preservation of this national heritage feature. The measures implemented initiated successful cooperation between nature conservation and tourism. The regions benefit greatly from this outcome. Furthermore, awareness of the Green Belt and support for its maintenance as an ecological network of national importance has increased substantially among local stakeholder groups and the general population.

Stapper N.J.,Buro fur okologische Studien | Franzen-Reuter I.,Kommission Reinhaltung der Luft im VDI und DIN
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft | Year: 2011

Epiphytic lichens with temperate mediterranean or subatlantic mediterranean distribution in Europe are used as indicator organisms for climate changes (abridged "climate change indicators") in the Düsseldorf area (Germany). The data presented in this study have been collected during several lichen mapping projects, in all of which the phorophytes were selected according to guideline VDI 3957 Part 13. The proportion of climate change indicators on the phorophytes' lichen species spectrum is used here as a measure of the climatic conditions at the tree location. It is highest along the Rhine valley and in areas with high annual precipitation close to the eastern boarder of the warmest parts of North Rhine-Westphalia, e.g. the Western slope of the Bergisches Land. In Düsseldorf and environs, between 2001 and 2010, frequency of climate change indicators has increased significantly.

Muller J.,Bavarian Forest National Park | Muller J.,TU Munich | Brandl R.,University of Marburg | Buchner J.,Bavarian Forest National Park | And 6 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013

For several decades, forest managers have considered the effects of logging on the habitat quality of forests for bats. Concern about bat activity above the canopy has now been raised owing to rapidly increasing demands for wind energy and the ensuing placement of wind turbines over forests. We investigated the little-explored vertical stratification of bat activity in forests at ten sites on ten nights using five simultaneous bat-call recorders placed from near ground up to above the canopy. The vegetation-free space at each recorder position was measured with terrestrial laser scanning. We predicted that (1) the activity of Pipistrellus, nyctaloids and the open-habitat foraging guild will increase in mature forests with increasing height above ground, independent of local vegetation density and temperature, and (2) the activity of Myotis and the edge-habitat-foraging guild will decrease with height but increase with local low vegetation density. Our generalized linear mixed model indicated that nyctaloids, Pipistrellus and open-habitat foragers were increasingly active in higher strata, independent of temperature and local vegetation density. Activity of Myotis and Pipistrellus species and the edge-habitat foragers was higher along interior edges of forests. The activity of single species in the above-canopy stratum could be explained well by their Europe-wide wind-turbine risk assessment. Thus, we conclude that open-habitat bat species and Pipistrellus species not only forage regularly in clearings or forest meadows, but also above the canopy of closed mature stands, behaviour that may put them at risk from turbines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jaeschke A.,University of Bayreuth | Bittner T.,LUBW Landesanstalt fur Umwelt | Jentsch A.,University of Bayreuth | Reineking B.,University of Bayreuth | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Climate change is expected to alter biotic interactions, and may lead to temporal and spatial mismatches of interacting species. Although the importance of interactions for climate change risk assessments is increasingly acknowledged in observational and experimental studies, biotic interactions are still rarely incorporated in species distribution models. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the obligate interaction between Aeshna viridis and its egg-laying plant Stratiotes aloides in Europe, based on an ensemble modelling technique. We compared three different approaches for incorporating biotic interactions in distribution models: (1) We separately modelled each species based on climatic information, and intersected the future range overlap ('overlap approach'). (2) We modelled the potential future distribution of A. viridis with the projected occurrence probability of S. aloides as further predictor in addition to climate ('explanatory variable approach'). (3) We calibrated the model of A. viridis in the current range of S. aloides and multiplied the future occurrence probabilities of both species ('reference area approach'). Subsequently, all approaches were compared to a single species model of A. viridis without interactions. All approaches projected a range expansion for A. viridis. Model performance on test data and amount of range gain differed depending on the biotic interaction approach. All interaction approaches yielded lower range gains (up to 667% lower) than the model without interaction. Regarding the contribution of algorithm and approach to the overall uncertainty, the main part of explained variation stems from the modelling algorithm, and only a small part is attributed to the modelling approach. The comparison of the no-interaction model with the three interaction approaches emphasizes the importance of including obligate biotic interactions in projective species distribution modelling. We recommend the use of the 'reference area approach' as this method allows a separation of the effect of climate and occurrence of host plant. © 2012 Jaeschke et al.

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