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Boe D.M.,Health science Campus | Boe D.M.,Loyola University Chicago | Curtis B.J.,Health science Campus | Curtis B.J.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2015

MΦ are multipurpose phagocytes with a large repertoire of well-characterized abilities and functions, including regulation of inflammation, wound healing, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, as well as serving as an integral component of the innate-immune defense against microbial pathogens. Working along with neutrophils and dendritic cells, the other myeloid-derived professional phagocytes, MΦ are one of the key effector cells initiating and directing the host reaction to pathogenic organisms and resolving subsequent responses once the threat has been cleared. ETs are a relatively novel strategy of host defense involving expulsion of nuclear material and embedded proteins from immune cells to immobilize and kill bacteria, fungi, and viruses. As research on ETs expands, it has begun to encompass many immune cell types in unexpected ways, including various types of MΦ, which are not only capable of generating METs in response to various stimuli, but recent preclinical data suggest that they are an important agent in clearing ETs and limiting ET-mediated inflammation and tissue damage. This review aims to summarize historical and recent findings of biologic research regarding ET formation and function and discuss the role of MΦ in ET physiology and associated pathologies. © 2015 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved.


Wong Y.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | La Porte H.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Szilagyi A.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Bach H.H.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to assess the activity of nonlysosomal proteolytic systems in skeletal and cardiac muscle during burn-induced hypermetabolism (BHM) in rats. Rats underwent 30% TBSA scald burn or sham injury and were observed for up to 42 days. Body weights and resting energy expenditures were determined weekly. Skeletal (soleus/pectoral) muscle and hearts were harvested on days 0 (=control), 7, 14, 21, and 42 after burn. Calpain, caspase-1, caspase-3/7, caspase-6, caspase-8, caspase-9, and proteasome peptidase activities were measured in tissue extracts. Hypermetabolism developed within 3 weeks after burns, as documented by increased resting energy expenditures and decreased body weights on postburn days 21 to 42 (P < 0.05 vs control). Calpain activities did not show significant alterations. Pan caspase activities increased by time and were significantly increased in skeletal and cardiac muscle extracts during hypermetabolism. Although increases in caspase-1, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities were predominantly responsible for elevated pan caspase activities in skeletal muscle, increases in caspase-6 activities dominated in the heart. Proteasome peptidase activities in skeletal muscle extracts were not significantly altered. Proteasome peptidase activities in heart extracts increased time dependently and were significantly increased during BHM. Activation of caspase cascades during BHM constitutes a uniform response in skeletal and cardiac muscle and may contribute to enhanced metabolic protein turnover. Activation of myocardial proteasome activities may reflect persistent cardiac stress. Further exploration of caspase cascades and the proteasome as therapeutic targets to influence long-term consequences of BHM appears justified. © 2013 by the American Burn Association.


Hammer A.M.,Alcohol Research Program | Hammer A.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Khan O.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Morris N.L.,Alcohol Research Program | And 9 more authors.
Shock | Year: 2016

Alcohol intoxication at the time of burn injury exacerbates postburn pathogenesis. Recent findings suggest gut barrier integrity is compromised after combined alcohol and burn insult, which could contribute to these complications. Tight junction proteins and mucins play critical roles in keeping the gut barrier intact. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol and burn injury on claudin and mucin expression in the intestines. We also evaluated if the combined insult differentially influences their expression in the small and large intestines. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a single dose of 2.9 g/kg ethanol before an approximately 12.5% body area burn. One and three days after injury, we profiled expression of several tight junction proteins, mucin, and bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the small and large intestines, using qPCR. We observed <50% decrease in claudin-4 and claudin-8 genes in both ileal and colonic epithelial cells 1 day after injury. Claudin-2 was significantly upregulated, and occludin was downregulated in the small intestine 1 day after injury. Mucin-3 expression was substantially elevated (>50%) in the small intestine, whereas mucin-2 and mucin-4 were considerably diminished in the colon (>50%) 1 day after injury. Most of the parameters were normalized to sham levels on day 3, except for mucin-3 and claudin-8, which remained decreased in the large intestine. Neither alcohol nor burn alone resulted in changes in junction or mucin gene expression compared to shams. This was accompanied with increases in the family of Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, in both the small and the large intestines 1 day after injury. These findings suggest that alcohol and burn injury disrupts the normal gut microbiota and alters tight junction and mucin expression in the small and large intestines. © Copyright 2016 by the Shock Society.


Carter S.R.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Carter S.R.,Loyola University Chicago | Chen M.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Chen M.M.,Loyola University Chicago | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Burn Care and Research | Year: 2016

The threat of nuclear disaster makes combined radiation and burn injury (CRI) a relevant topic when discussing modern trauma, as burn injuries are likely to occur with detonation of a conventional nuclear weapon. Previous studies in a murine model have shown that there is a breakdown of the gut epithelium and subsequent bacterial translocation into mesenteric lymph nodes after CRI. This study examines the early innate immune response of the small intestine after CRI. Using a previously established murine model of 5 to 5.5 Gy total body irradiation combined with 15% TBSA burn, the injury response of the small intestine was examined at 24, 48, and 72 hours by visual assessment, myeloperoxidase, and cytokine measurement. At 24 hours, intestinal damage as measured by villus blunting, crypt debris, and decreased mitosis, was apparent in all injury groups but the derangements persisted out to 72 hours only with CRI. The prolonged intestinal damage in CRI was accompanied by a 2-fold (P <.05) elevation in myeloperoxidase activity over sham animals at 48 hours and persisted as a 3-fold (P <.05) elevation at 72 hours after injury. Corresponding levels of KC were 8-fold (P <.05) higher than sham at 48hours with persistent elevation at 72 hours. An enhanced innate immune response, partially mediated by the influx of neutrophils into the gastrointestinal tract is contributing to the hyperinflammatory state seen after CRI. Attenuation of the local gastrointestinal inflammatory response may play a major role in managing victims after nuclear disaster. Copyright © 2014 by the American Burn Association 1559-047X/2014.


Bach H.H.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Wong Y.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | LaPorte H.M.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | Gamelli R.L.,Burn and Shock Trauma Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that chemokine receptor CXCR4 regulates vascular α1-adrenergic receptor function and that the noncognate CXCR4 agonist ubiquitin has therapeutic potential after trauma/hemorrhage. Pharmacologic properties of ubiquitin in large animal trauma models, however, are poorly characterized. Thus, the aims of the present study were to determine the effects of CXCR4 modulation on resuscitation requirements after polytrauma, to assess whether ubiquitin influences survival times after lethal polytrauma-hemorrhage, and to characterize its dose-effect profile in porcine models. METHODS: Anesthetized pigs underwent polytrauma (PT, femur fractures/lung contusion) alone (Series 1) or PT/hemorrhage (PT/H) to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 mmHg with subsequent fluid resuscitation (Series 2 and 3) or 40% blood volume hemorrhage within 15 minutes followed by 2.5% blood volume hemorrhage every 15 minutes without fluid resuscitation (Series 4). In Series 1, ubiquitin (175 and 350 nmol/kg), AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist, 350 nmol/kg), or vehicle treatment 60 minutes after PTwas performed. In Series 2, ubiquitin (175, 875, and 1,750 nmol/kg) or vehicle treatment 60 minutes after PT/H was performed. In Series 3, ubiquitin (175 and 875 nmol/kg) or vehicle treatment at 60 and 180 minutes after PT/H was performed. In Series 4, ubiquitin (875 nmol/kg) or vehicle treatment 30 minutes after hemorrhage was performed. RESULTS: In Series 1, resuscitation fluid requirements were significantly reduced by 40% with 350-nmol/kg ubiquitin and increased by 25% with AMD3100. In Series 2, median survival time was 190 minutes with vehicle, 260 minutes with 175-nmol/kg ubiquitin, and longer than 420 minutes with 875-nmol/kg and 1,750-nmol/kg ubiquitin (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle). In Series 3, median survival time was 288 minutes with vehicle and 336 minutes and longer than 420 minutes (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle) with 175-nmol/kg and 875-nmol/kg ubiquitin, respectively. In Series 4, median survival time was 147.5 minutes and 150 minutes with vehicle and ubiquitin, respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings further suggestCXCR4 as a drug target afterPT/H.Ubiquitin treatment reduces resuscitation fluid requirements and provides survival benefits after PT/H. The pharmacological effects of ubiquitin treatment occur dose dependently. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016;80: 102-110. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

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