Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute

White Plains, NY, United States

Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute

White Plains, NY, United States
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Schambra H.M.,Columbia University | Ogden R.T.,Columbia University | Martinez-Hernandez I.E.,Columbia University | Lin X.,Columbia University | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2015

The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large, only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. TMS measures should be used based on their reliability in particular contexts. More work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed. © 2015 Schambra, Ogden, Martínez-Hernández, Lin, Chang, Rahman, Edwards and Krakauer.

Qin L.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Kim E.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Ratan R.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Ratan R.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be necessary and sufficient for post-stroke recovery in rodents. From these observations, we and others have hypothesized that a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the pro-domain of bdnf that leads to a methionine (Met) substitution for valine (Val) at codon 66 (Val66Met) will affect stroke outcome. Here we investigate the effect of the BDNF genetic variant on ischemic outcome by using mice with a genetic knock-in of the human BDNF variant in both alleles (BDNF Met/Met). Compared with wild-type mice, BDNFMet/Met mice exhibited reduced CNS BDNF levels without a discernable effect on infarct size. Diminished BDNF levels in BDNFMet/Met mice were associated with greater deficits in post-stroke locomotor functions. Additionally, the BDNF Met/Met mice showed reduced angiogenesis and elevated expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor CD36, anti-angiogenic factors. To assess the functional role of CD36 in antagonizing angiogenic response in Met homozygosity at the BDNF locus, we crossed BDNFMet/Met mice with CD36 knock-out mice. The double-mutant mice rescued the angiogenic deficit associated with the BDNFMet/Met mice without alterations in BDNF levels, indicating that the behavioral deficit in BDNFMet/Met mice after stroke is partly related to an unfavorable balance in pro-angiogenic BDNF and anti-angiogenic TSP-1/CD36. The results suggest that CD36 inhibitionmaybe a viable strategy to enhance angiogenesis and possible recovery inhumanstroke victimswhoare Met homozygotes at codon 66 of the BDNF locus. Copyright © 2011 the authors.

Dulin J.N.,University of California at San Diego | Antunes-Martins A.,Wolfson Center for Age Related Disease | Chandran V.,University of California at Los Angeles | Costigan M.,Boston Childrens Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Understanding why adult CNS neurons fail to regenerate their axons following injury remains a central challenge of neuroscience research. Amore complete appreciation of the biological mechanisms shaping the injured nervous system is a crucial prerequisite for the development of robust therapies to promote neural repair. Historically, the identification of regeneration associated signaling pathways has been impeded by the limitations of available genetic and molecular tools. As we progress into an era in which the high-throughput interrogation of gene expression is commonplace and our knowledge base of interactome data is rapidly expanding, we can now begin to assemble a more comprehensive view of the complex biology governing axon regeneration. Here, we highlight current and ongoing work featuring transcriptomic approaches toward the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms that can be manipulated to promote neural repair. © 2015 the authors.

Carmel J.B.,New York Medical College | Carmel J.B.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Carmel J.B.,City University of New York | Kimura H.,City University of New York | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

We previously showed that electrical stimulation of motor cortex (M1) after unilateral pyramidotomy in the rat increased corticospinal tract (CST) axon length, strengthened spinal connections, and restored forelimb function. Here, we tested: (i) if M1 stimulation only increases spinal axon length or if it also promotes connections to brain stem forelimb control centers, especially magnocellular red nucleus; and (ii) if stimulation-induced increase in axon length depends on whether pyramidotomy denervated the structure. After unilateral pyramidotomy, we electrically stimulated the forelimb area of intact M1, to activate the intact CST and other corticofugal pathways, for 10 days. We anterogradely labeled stimulated M1 and measured axon length using stereology. Stimulation increased axon length in both the spinal cord and magnocellular red nucleus, even though the spinal cord is denervated by pyramidotomy and the red nucleus is not. Stimulation also promoted outgrowth in the cuneate and parvocellular red nuclei. In the spinal cord, electrical stimulation caused increased axon length ipsilateral, but not contralateral, to stimulation. Thus, stimulation promoted outgrowth preferentially to the sparsely corticospinal-innervated and impaired side. Outgrowth resulted in greater axon density in the ipsilateral dorsal horn and intermediate zone, resembling the contralateral termination pattern. Importantly, as in spinal cord, increase in axon length in brain stem also was preferentially directed towards areas less densely innervated by the stimulated system. Thus, M1 electrical stimulation promotes increases in corticofugal axon length to multiple M1 targets. We propose the axon length change was driven by competition into an adaptive pattern resembling lost connections. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mahishi L.H.,Cornell University | Mahishi L.H.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Hart R.P.,Rutgers University | Lynch D.R.,Children's Hospital of Philadelphia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is the most common inherited ataxia caused primarily by an intronic GAA. TTC triplet repeat expansion in the frataxin (FXN) gene. FXN RNA and protein levels are reduced in patients leading to progressive gait and limb ataxia, sensory loss, reduced tendon reflexes, dysarthria, absent lower limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Neurological manifestations ensue from primary loss of dorsal root ganglia neurons and their associated axons ascending centrally in the spinal cord and peripherally in large myelinated nerves. Small noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs have been shown to be dysregulated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease. Here we report that hsa-miR-886-3p (miR-886-3p) was increased in patient cells as well as peripheral patient blood samples. Selective reduction in miR-886-3p by an anti-miR led to elevation of FXN message and protein levels without associated changes in histone marks at the FXN locus. Nevertheless, derepression of frataxin by a histone deacetylase inhibitor leads to a decrease in miR-886-3p. These results outline involvement of a small RNA, miR-886-3p in FRDA and a novel therapeutic approach to this disease using an anti-miR-886-3p. © 2012 the authors.

Deconinck F.J.A.,Ghent University | Deconinck F.J.A.,Manchester Metropolitan University | Smorenburg A.R.P.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Benham A.,Bradford Institute for Health Research | And 3 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2015

Background. Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a phenomenon where movement of one limb is perceived as movement of the other limb, has the capacity to alleviate phantom limb pain or promote motor recovery of the upper limbs after stroke. The tool has received great interest from health professionals; however, a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying the neural recovery owing to MVF is lacking. Objective. We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of MVF on brain activation during a motor task. Methods. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases for neuroimaging studies investigating the effect of MVF on the brain. Key details for each study regarding participants, imaging methods, and results were extracted. Results. The database search yielded 347 article, of which we identified 33 suitable for inclusion. Compared with a control condition, MVF increases neural activity in areas involved with allocation of attention and cognitive control (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, S1 and S2, precuneus). Apart from activation in the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex, there is little evidence that MVF activates the mirror neuron system. MVF increases the excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) that projects to the "untrained" hand/arm. There is also evidence for ipsilateral projections from the contralateral M1 to the untrained/affected hand as a consequence of training with MVF. Conclusion. MVF can exert a strong influence on the motor network, mainly through increased cognitive penetration in action control, though the variance in methodology and the lack of studies that shed light on the functional connectivity between areas still limit insight into the actual underlying mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

Sindhurakar A.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Bradley N.S.,University of Southern California
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Chicks are bipedal precocious vertebrates that achieve adaptive locomotor skill within hours after hatching. Development of limb movement has been extensively studied in the chicken embryo, but few studies have focused on the preparations leading to precocious locomotor skill. Chicks typically hatch after 21 days of incubation, and recent studies provided evidence that the neural circuits for intralimb control of stepping are established between embryonic days (E) 18-20. It has also been shown that variations in light exposure during embryogenesis can accelerate or delay the onset of hatching and walking by 1 to 2 days. Our earlier work revealed that despite these differences in time to hatch, chicks incubated in different light conditions achieved similar locomotor skill on the day of hatching. Results suggested to us that light exposure during incubation may have accelerated development of locomotor circuits in register with earlier hatching. Thus, in this study, embryos were incubated in 1 of 3 light conditions to determine if development of interlimb coordination at a common time point, 19 days of incubation, varied with light exposure during embryogenesis. Leg muscle activity was recorded bilaterally and burst analyses were performed for sequences of spontaneous locomotor-related activity in one or more ankle muscles to quantify the extent of interlimb coordination in ovo. We report findings indicating that the extent of interlimb coordination varied with light exposure, and left-right alternating steps were a more reliable attribute of interlimb coordination for embryos incubated in constant bright light. We provide evidence that morphological development of the leg varied with light exposure. Based on these findings, we propose that light can accelerate the development of interlimb coordination in register with earlier hatching. Our results lead us to further propose that alternating left-right stepping is the default pattern of interlimb coordination produced by locomotor circuits during embryogenesis. © 2012 Sindhurakar, Bradley.

Kim E.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Kim E.,Cornell College | Tolhurst A.T.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Cho S.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Cho S.,Cornell College
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2014

Background: Although elicited inflammation contributes to tissue injury, a certain level of inflammation is necessary for subsequent tissue repair/remodeling. Diabetes, a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, is a predisposing risk factor for stroke. The condition is associated with delayed wound healing, presumably due to disrupted inflammatory responses. With inclusion of the diabetic condition in an experimental animal model of stroke, this study investigates whether the condition alters inflammatory response and influences stroke-induced brain injury. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were fed a diabetic diet (DD) for 8 weeks to induce an experimental diabetic condition or a normal diet (ND) for the same duration. Gene expression of inflammatory factors including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), CCR2, and CD36 was assessed in the peripheral immune cells and brains of normal and diabetic mice before and after focal cerebral ischemia. The expression of these factors was also determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cultured normal and diabetic macrophages. Ischemic outcome was assessed in these mice at 3 days post-ischemia. Results: DD intervention in mice resulted in obesity and elevated insulin and glucose level in the blood. The peritoneal immune cells from the diabetic mice showed higher MCP-1 mRNA levels before and after stroke. Compared to normal mice, diabetic mice showed reduced MCP-1, IL-6, and CCR2 gene expression in the brain at 6 h post-ischemia. LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses were also reduced in the diabetic macrophages. The diabetic mice showed larger infarct size and percent swelling.Conclusions: These results showed that diabetic conditions deregulate acute inflammatory response and that the condition is associated with increased stroke-induced injury. The study suggests that interventions aimed at restoring appropriate inflammatory response in peripheral immune cells/macrophages may be beneficial in reducing stroke-induced brain injury in subjects with chronic inflammatory conditions. © 2014 Kim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kim E.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Kim E.,New York Medical College | Yang J.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | D Beltran C.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Monocytes/macrophages (MMs), mononuclear phagocytes, have been implicated in stroke-induced inflammation and injury. However, the presence of pro-inflammatory Ly-6Chigh and antiinflammatory Ly-6Clow monocyte subsets raises uncertainty regarding their role in stroke pathologic assessment. With recent identification of the spleen as an immediate reservoir of MMs, this current study addresses whether the spleen-derived MMs are required for stroke pathologic assessment. We observed that the spleen was contracted in poststroke animals and the contraction was accompanied by decreased number of Ly-6Chigh and Ly-6Clow subsets in the spleen. The deployment of these subsets from the spleen temporally coincided with respective increases in the ischemic brain. Compared to mice with the spleen, mice receiving a splenectomy just before the stroke displayed less accumulation of Ly-6Chigh and Ly-6Clow MMs in the brain. Despite the reduced accumulation of both subsets, infarct size and swelling were not reduced in the asplenic mice. The dissociative findings of infarct size and extent of MM infiltration in the postischemic brain indicate minimal involvement of spleen-derived total MMs in acute infarct development. Selective Ly-6C high or Ly-6Clow MM targeting is suggested to address the contribution of the individual subset to acute stroke pathologic assessment. © 2014 ISCBFM.

Basso M.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Basso M.,Cornell University | Ratan R.R.,Burke Cornell Medical Research Institute | Ratan R.R.,Cornell University
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Transglutaminases (TGs) are multifunctional, calcium-dependent enzymes that have been recently implicated in stroke pathophysiology. Classically, these enzymes are thought to participate in cell injury and death in chronic neurodegenerative conditions via their ability to catalyze covalent, nondegradable crosslinks between proteins or to incorporate polyamines into protein substrates. Accumulating lines of inquiry indicate that specific TG isoforms can shuttle into the nucleus when they sense pathologic changes in calcium or oxidative stress, bind to chromatin and thereby transduce these changes into transcriptional repression of genes involved in metabolic or oxidant adaptation. Here, we review the evidence that supports principally a role for one isoform of this family, TG2, in cell injury and death associated with hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. We also outline an evolving model in which TG2 is a critical mediator between pathologic signaling and epigenetic modifications that lead to gene repression. Accordingly, the salutary effects of TG inhibitors in stroke may derive from their ability to restore homeostasis by removing inappropriate deactivation of adaptive genetic programs by oxidative stress or extrasynaptic glutamate receptor signaling. © 2013 ISCBFM All rights reserved.

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