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Tsai W.S.,The World Vegetable Center | Tsai W.S.,National Chung Hsing University | Shih S.L.,The World Vegetable Center | Venkatesan S.G.,The World Vegetable Center | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2011

Begomoviruses were found to be the major viruses infecting tomato plants in the Philippines based on the surveys conducted from 2005 to 2006. Pepper-infecting begomoviruses were also detected. Isolates of four distinct begomovirus species, Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV), Tomato leaf curl Cebu virus (ToLCCeV), Tomato leaf curl Mindanao virus (ToLCMiV) and Tomato leaf curl Philippines virus (ToLCPV), were characterised at the DNA sequence level by comparing 20 DNA-As from tomato samples comprising 13 from Luzon, 2 from Cebu and 5 from Mindanao Islands, along with 3 DNA-As from pepper samples, 1 each from Luzon, Cebu and Mindanao Islands. Two of these species (ToLCCeV and ToLCMiV) were distinct novel begomoviruses, while AYVV was detected for the first time in the Philippines. By geographic distribution, two tomato begomoviruses (ToLCPV and ToLCCeV) were detected in Luzon and Cebu Islands. The ToLCMiV was also detected in Luzon Island. The three tomato begomoviruses, AYVV, ToLCCeV and ToLCMiV, were detected in Mindanao Island. A ToLCPV isolate infecting pepper was also detected in Luzon Island, while ToLCCeV was detected in pepper samples from Cebu and Mindanao Islands. The diversity of viruses and their distinct geographic distribution need to be taken into consideration in the development and deployment of resistance against begomoviruses in the Philippines. Strategies for the use of post-transcriptional gene silencing for the control of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in the Philippines are discussed. © 2011 Association of Applied Biologists. Source


Cadayong B.P.,Bureau of Agricultural Research | Barraquio V.L.,University of the Philippines at Los Banos
Philippine Journal of Science | Year: 2014

A total of 200 respondents, 100 each for cheese and fermented sausage, were surveyed in selected areas of Southern Luzon to determine the consumption levels of biogenic amines in these food products. It was found that the consumption of Blue, Cheddar, and Edam cheese were 1.66, 13.31 and 4.16 g per day, respectively. For Chorizo, Pepperoni, and Salami, the amounts consumed were 2.62, 2.71, and 0.91 g per day, respectively. The biogenic amine consumption levels were computed and expressed on a daily basis. The consumption levels for histamine were 0.19, 2.90, and 0.21 ppm per day from Blue, Cheddar, and Edam cheese, respectively. For tyramine, the levels consumed were 3.78, 7.61, and 0.83 ppm per day from Blue, Cheddar and Edam cheese, respectively. For fermented sausage, the histamine consumption levels were 0.78, 0.79, and 0.26 ppm per day from Chorizo, Pepperoni, and Salami, respectively. Tyramine from Salami was 0.45 ppm per day. As to the effects on health after consumption of cheeses and fermented sausages, the computed weighted average of the responses indicated that the frequency of occurrence of symptoms of biogenic amine poisoning was interpreted as ‘never’. The total assessed risk for cheese consumption was 5.21 while for fermented sausage consumption, it was 5. 09. These values were interpreted as low risk and the probability of harm to people is low even if no control measures are implemented. © 2014, Science and Technology Information Institute. All rights reserved. Source


Agillon A.B.,Bureau of Agricultural Research | Lizada M.C.C.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Chilling injury (CI) in the 'Carabao' mango fruit was characterized in terms of changes associated with two phases in its development: induction and symptom expression. CI manifested as light brown surface lesions progressively coalescing at 5°C storage and associated with increased ethylene production. Susceptibility was associated with a high proportion of SFA/UFA. Hot water treatment, regardless of maturity, enhanced injury development. Total phenols increased, while polyphenoloxidases (PPO) activity decreased at 5°C. The increase in total phenols is consistent with the involvement of phenolic oxidation in symptom expression. The severity of symptoms in mango is then an overall expression of the degree of unsaturation of PL and increase of PPO's substrate. Source

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