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Traxler R.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Guerra M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Morrow M.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Morrison J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Five laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) cases that occurred in the United States between 2008 and 2011 are presented. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviewed the recommendations published in 2008 and the published literature to identify strategies to further prevent LAB. The improved prevention strategies are described. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Palcic J.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Pawlowicz M.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2014

The health effects of mercury in humans are mostly on the developing nervous system. Pregnant women and women who are breastfeeding must be targeted in order to decrease mercury exposure to the populations at highest risk—infants, unborn fetuses, and young children. This purpose of this study is to understand the demographics of fish-consumption patterns among women of childbearing age (including pregnant women) in Martin County, Florida, and to analyze the associations of mercury levels in participants’ hair with socio-demographic variables in order to better design prevention messages and campaigns. Mercury concentrations in hair samples of 408 women ages 18–49 were assessed. Data on demographic factors, pregnancy status, fish consumption, and awareness of fish advisories were collected during personal interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. The geometric and arithmetic means of hair mercury concentration were 0.371 and 0.676 µg/g of hair. One-fourth of the respondents had a concentration ≥1 µg/g of hair. Consuming a higher number of fish meals per month, consumption of commercially purchased or locally caught fish higher in mercury, White race and income ≥$75,000 were positively associated with the likelihood of having higher hair mercury levels. This study confirms the existence of a higher overall mean hair mercury level and a higher percentage of women with ≥1 µg/g hair mercury level than those reported at the national level and in other regional studies. This suggests the need for region-specific fish consumption advisories to minimize mercury exposure in humans. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Marston C.K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Ibrahim H.,Villages Regional Hospital | Lee P.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Churchwell G.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH-1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Villages Regional Hospital and Bureau of Public Health Laboratories
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Bacillus cereus isolates have been described harboring Bacillus anthracis toxin genes, most notably B. cereus G9241, and capable of causing severe and fatal pneumonias. This report describes the characterization of a B. cereus isolate, BcFL2013, associated with a naturally occurring cutaneous lesion resembling an anthrax eschar. Similar to G9241, BcFL2013 is positive for the B. anthracis pXO1 toxin genes, has a multi-locus sequence type of 78, and a pagA sequence type of 9. Whole genome sequencing confirms the similarity to G9241. In addition to the chromosome having an average nucleotide identity of 99.98% when compared to G9241, BcFL2013 harbors three plasmids with varying homology to the G9241 plasmids (pBCXO1, pBC210 and pBFH_1). This is also the first report to include serologic testing of patient specimens associated with this type of B. cereus infection which resulted in the detection of anthrax lethal factor toxemia, a quantifiable serum antibody response to protective antigen (PA), and lethal toxin neutralization activity.


Bennett B.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Neumann D.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Fordan S.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Villaraza R.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Objective: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories have proposed a new HIV-1/2 Diagnostic Algorithm: a fourth-generation HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab immunoassay (IA) followed, when repeatedly reactive, by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation test, and if that is non-reactive, HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). The objective of the study was to evaluate performance of the new algorithm after five months of utilization in our high volume, high HIV-1 seroprevalence public health population. Methods: Algorithm sensitivity and specificity was evaluated on 51,953 prospective serum or plasma specimens from individuals self-referring for HIV serostatus determination. Specimens were tested on the day of receipt or maintained at 4°C until the next testing opportunity. If the initial HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab IA (Abbott Combo) was nonreactive, a negative lab interpretation report would follow. If the initial IA was reactive, repeat screening in duplicate was immediately performed. Repeatedly reactive specimens were tested with an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation assay (Multispot [MS] HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test) on the same or next workday. If the Abbott Combo-MS assays were discordant, HIV-1 NAT (APTIMA® HIV-1 RNA) was performed. In addition to the algorithm performance, we also evaluated the laboratory "specimen receipt to reporting" turnaround time (TAT). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the new HIV Diagnostic Algorithm with serum and plasma specimens over the initial 5 month period was 100% (922/922) and 99.99% (51,030/51,031), respectively. Two algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 infections (AHI) were detected. In addition only 3 of the 992 MS secondary tests performed were interpreted as HIV-1 Indeterminate (HIV-1 recombinant gp41 reactivity only). Of these, 2 were HIV-1 NAT reactive, defined in-house as an early HIV infection (EHI) and one was HIV-1 NAT nonreactive, indicating a false positive initial screening result. Laboratory TAT for reporting concordant reactive Abbott Combo-MS results in ≤2 workdays was 96%, compared to 22% for reporting concordant reactive 3rd generation IA-Western blot results. Conclusions: In our public health testing population, results from the new HIV Diagnostic Algorithm exceeded those of the 3rd generation IA-WB algorithm with respect to HIV-1 sensitivity. The identification of two algorithm-defined AHIs provided the opportunity to inform these individuals of their HIV status and link them to medical care earlier than the scheduled posttest counseling appointment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Bennett B.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Hardy B.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Fordan S.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | Haddock-Morilla L.,Bureau of Public Health Laboratories | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Background: Early HIV diagnosis, linkage and engagement into care are vital to improved personal health outcomes. The initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with retention in care and drug adherence leads to viral load suppression, a significant decrease in HIV transmission rates and ultimately a reduction in HIV incidence rates. In the U.S only 51% of those diagnosed with HIV infection are retained in care and 28% have a suppressed viral load. Reducing the time and number of visits from HIV diagnosis to entry into care, has the potential to engage and treat an increased number of infected individuals. Objective: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of conducting HIV-1 supplemental testing concurrently with baseline clinical management testing; (2) to evaluate whether all tests could be completed and reported prior to the traditional posttest counseling appointment; (3) to monitor the return activity for posttest and medical provider appointments. Methods: Baseline CD4 and HIV-1 viral load tests were performed concurrently with an HIV-1/2 antibody immunoassay (IA) and HIV-1 Western blot (WB) on 105 individuals with preliminary positive rapid test results. Participating study-sites were located in high-risk, high-morbidity locations: a county jail, a county mobile unit and a county hospital emergency department. Based on the individual's self-reporting statement of "No" to a previous HIV diagnosis and the POC preliminary positive rapid test result, blood specimens were processed via the Single Staging Algorithm. Study site data and medical record review established time intervals between the rapid test and subsequent visits. Results: Of the 105 individuals with HIV-1 preliminary positive rapid test results, 102 were confirmed positive with HIV-1 WB (plus 3rd generation IA repeatedly reactive) and one was confirmed by an HIV-1 WB indeterminate (gp160), HIV-1 Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) reactive (an algorithm-defined early infection). The concordance between POC preliminary positive rapid tests and the confirmatory test of the single staging algorithm was 98%. Ninety-six (91%) HIV-1 baseline viral load test results and 82 (78%) CD4/CD8 absolute counts were performed and made available to the provider prior to posttest counseling. The average number of visits for posttest counseling at 14 days was 44.7% (range 37.9-56.5%) with an additional 31.1% (range 22.7-37.9%) returning within 30 days. The average number of clients that returned for the medical provider appointment was 55.4%. Conclusion: A high percentage of HIV-1 clinical management baseline results (78-91%) and 100% confirmatory diagnostic results were completed and reported prior to the traditional posttest counseling appointment. Additional data and analysis is needed to determine the impact of the Single Staging Algorithm on medical provider appointments if the posttest appointment is more than 30 days after the preliminary HIV diagnosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Bureau of Public Health Laboratories
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories have proposed a new HIV-1/2 Diagnostic Algorithm: a fourth-generation HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab immunoassay (IA) followed, when repeatedly reactive, by an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation test, and if that is non-reactive, HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). The objective of the study was to evaluate performance of the new algorithm after five months of utilization in our high volume, high HIV-1 seroprevalence public health population.Algorithm sensitivity and specificity was evaluated on 51,953 prospective serum or plasma specimens from individuals self-referring for HIV serostatus determination. Specimens were tested on the day of receipt or maintained at 4C until the next testing opportunity. If the initial HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab IA (Abbott Combo) was nonreactive, a negative lab interpretation report would follow. If the initial IA was reactive, repeat screening in duplicate was immediately performed. Repeatedly reactive specimens were tested with an HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation assay (Multispot [MS] HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test) on the same or next workday. If the Abbott Combo-MS assays were discordant, HIV-1 NAT (APTIMA() HIV-1 RNA) was performed. In addition to the algorithm performance, we also evaluated the laboratory specimen receipt to reporting turnaround time (TAT).The sensitivity and specificity of the new HIV Diagnostic Algorithm with serum and plasma specimens over the initial 5 month period was 100% (922/922) and 99.99% (51,030/51,031), respectively. Two algorithm-defined acute HIV-1 infections (AHI) were detected. In addition only 3 of the 992 MS secondary tests performed were interpreted as HIV-1 Indeterminate (HIV-1 recombinant gp41 reactivity only). Of these, 2 were HIV-1 NAT reactive, defined in-house as an early HIV infection (EHI) and one was HIV-1 NAT nonreactive, indicating a false positive initial screening result. Laboratory TAT for reporting concordant reactive Abbott Combo-MS results in 2 workdays was 96%, compared to 22% for reporting concordant reactive 3rd generation IA-Western blot results.In our public health testing population, results from the new HIV Diagnostic Algorithm exceeded those of the 3rd generation IA-WB algorithm with respect to HIV-1 sensitivity. The identification of two algorithm-defined AHIs provided the opportunity to inform these individuals of their HIV status and link them to medical care earlier than the scheduled posttest counseling appointment.

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