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Tehrān, Iran

Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Askarieh A.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Motlagh M.E.,Bureau of Population | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health

Introduction. This study aimed to determine the association of blood cadmium level with cardiometabolic risk factors and liver enzymes in adolescents. Methods. This case control study comprised 320 Iranian adolescents, 160 with metabolic syndrome and an equal number of controls. They were selected from participants of a nationwide survey entitled the CASPIAN-III study. Cadmium was measured by atomic absorption method. Results. The mean age of the case and control groups was not significantly different (15.3 ± 2.6 versus 14.63 ± 2.5 years, resp., P > 0.05). The mean cadmium level was near double-fold higher than the standards of the World Health Organization, without significant difference between the MetS and control groups (10.09 ± 2.21, 9.97 ± 2.38 g/L, resp., P > 0.05). Cadmium level had positive but nonsignificant correlations with diastolic blood pressure, serum triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, LDL-C, and liver enzymes. Conclusion. Cadmium level had positive but nonsignificant association with some cardiometabolic risk factors and liver enzymes. The associations did not reach statistical significant level, and this may be because of the high levels of cadmium in both groups studied or because of the young age group of participants. Controlling environmental pollutants shall be a priority for the prevention of chronic diseases. © 2013 Roya Kelishadi et al. Source

Khashayar P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Heshmat R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Motlagh M.E.,Bureau of Population | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Endocrinology

Objective. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different combinations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Methods. The study sample, obtained as part of the third study of the school-based surveillance system entitled CASPIAN III, was representative of the Iranian adolescent population aged from 10 to 18 years. The prevalence of different components of MetS was studied and their discriminative value was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. The study participants consisted of 5738 students (2875 girls) with mean age of 14.7±2.4 years) living in 23 provinces in Iran; 17.4% of participants were underweight and 17.7% were overweight or obese. Based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for the adolescent age group, 24.2% of participants had one risk factor, 8.0% had two, 2.1% had three, and 0.3% had all the four components of MetS. Low HDL-C was the most common component (43.2% among the overweight/obese versus 34.9% of the normal-weight participants), whereas high blood pressure was the least common component. The prevalence of MetS was 15.4% in the overweight/obese participants, the corresponding figure was 1.8% for the normal-weight students, and 2.5% in the whole population studied. Overweight/obese subjects had a 9.68 increased odds of (95% CI: 6.65-14.09) the MetS compared to their normal-weight counterparts. For all the three risk factors, AUC ranged between 0.84 and 0.88, 0.83 and 0.87, and 0.86 and 0.89 in waist circumference, abdominal obesity, and BMI for boys and between 0.78 and 0.97, 0.67 and 0.93, and 0.82 and 0.96 for girls, respectively. Conclusion. The findings from this study provide alarming evidence-based data on the considerable prevalence of obesity, MetS, and CVD risk factors in the adolescent age group. These results are confirmatory evidence for the necessity of primordial/primary prevention of noncommunicable disease should be considered as a health priority in communities facing a double burden of nutritional disorders. © 2013 Patricia Khashayar et al. Source

Izadi V.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Qorbani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.

Objectives: Studies examining the relationship between breast-feeding (BF) duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have reached contradictory results. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BF duration and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods: This national population-based study was conducted among 5258 Iranian students, ages 10 to 18 y living in central cities of 27 provinces of Iran. Association was examined between duration of BF and adolescent blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Low birth weight was less frequent in the longer than in the shorter BF duration categories (P < 0.0001). Number of children was lower in individuals with longer BF duration (P = 0.01). Individuals with longer BF duration used more homemade food than those with shorter BF duration (P < 0.0001). Means of total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were lower in participants with the longest BF period compared with those with the shortest BF duration; this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). No significant association was found between BF duration and CVD risk factors in logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: Although the long-term benefits of BF on preventing CVDs are well documented, controversies exist as to the association of BF duration with such beneficial effects. In this study, there was no substantial evidence that longer BF duration was protective against CVD risk factors among adolescents. More prospective studies are recommended to clarify this association. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rahmanian M.,University of Yazd | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Qorbani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Medical Science

Introduction: Our aim was to compare changes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) curves of Iranian children by comparing the results of two national surveys of a surveillance program, i.e. CASPIAN-I (2003- 2004) and CASPIAN-III (2009-2010). The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among 10-18-yearold Iranian children and adolescents. Material and methods: This study was performed among students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces of Iran, as part of a national survey of school student high risk behavior entitled CASPIAN-III, conducted in 2009-2010. Results: We evaluated 5088 school students (50.2% boys). In rural areas, underweight was more common in boys and overweight and obesity in girls. In urban areas underweight and obesity were more common in boys, whereas overweight was more common in girls. The highest prevalence of underweight (23.5%) was seen in students aged 13 years and the lowest (11.4%) in those aged 18 years. Underweight was significantly more common in rural than in urban areas (22.1% vs. 15.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001) and overweight/ obesity was more common in urban than in rural areas. Compared with the findings in 2003-2004, the overall prevalence of elevated body mass index (16.6%) including obesity (9.1%) and overweight (7.5%) as well as underweight (17.5%) increased from 2003 to 2010. Conclusions: In recent years, the double burden of nutritional disorders has increased among Iranian children and adolescents, especially in rural areas. This change may be related to epidemiologic transition, notably in terms of nutrition transition and rapid changes in lifestyle habits. This finding is an important issue for policy-makers for interventional preventive programs. Source

Shafiee G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Jornal de Pediatria

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian pediatrics. Methods: the study participants considered of 5,625 school students aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of the national school-based surveillance system (CASPIAN-III). They were classified into three groups based on the number of days they ate breakfast: "regular breakfast eater" (6-7days/week), "often breakfast eater" (3-5days/week), and "seldom breakfast eater" (0-2 days/week). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and generalized obesity were included as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the breakfast intake category and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: the number of subjects classified as "regular", "often" and "seldom" breakfast eaters were 2,653(47.3%), 1,327(23.7%) and 1,624(29.0%), respectively. The average of triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were higher in the "seldom breakfast eater" group (P for trend<0.001), whereas the mean of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in this group than their other counterparts. Seldom breakfast eaters had an increased risk of obesity, elevated TG and LDL-C, as well as low HDL-C compared to "regular breakfast eaters". The risk of MetS was significantly increased in subjects who seldom ate breakfast (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.27). Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved. Source

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