Bureau of Plant Industry

Harrisburg, PA, United States

Bureau of Plant Industry

Harrisburg, PA, United States
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Herradura L.E.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Lobres M.A.N.,Bureau of Plant Industry | De Waele D.,Catholic University of Leuven | Davide R.G.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños | Van Den Bergh I.,Bioversity International
Nematology | Year: 2012

The yield response of four popular banana cultivars from southeast Asia to infection with a population of Radopholus similis collected from banana in Davao, Philippines, was investigated in a microplot experiment. Bunch weight reduction of nematode-infected plants ranged from 25 to 68% for all four southeast Asian banana cultivars and Grand Nain (AAA), the susceptible reference cultivar included in the study. The banana cv. Latundan (AAB) had a nematode population density of 185, 38 and 27 nematodes at 6 months after planting, flowering and harvesting, respectively, and a low bunch weight reduction (25%) compared with the other banana cultivars examined, possibly suggesting that this cultivar is partially resistant to R. similis. Copyright © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2012.


Cumagun C.J.R.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños | Aguirre J.A.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Relevante C.A.,East West Seed Company | Balatero C.H.,East West Seed Company
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2010

Fusarium oxysporum is responsible for a large range of diseases on economically important crops such as bitter gourd and bottle gourd. Pathogenicity and aggressiveness of F. oxysporum in bitter gourd and bottle gourd isolated from two breeding stations of East-West Company in the Philippines namely San Ildefonso, Bulacan and Lipa, Batangas were tested. Eleven F. oxysporum isolates from bitter gourd and 12 isolates from bottle gourd were inoculated on 7-day and 1-month-old bitter gourd and bottle gourd plants in the greenhouse. All F. oxysporum isolates from bitter gourd were pathogenic on 7-day-old and 1-month-old bitter gourd and nine out of 12 isolates from bottle gourd were pathogenic on bottle gourd. Three isolates from the infested soil were non-pathogenic on bottle gourd. There was a significant difference in aggressiveness of the isolates on their natural hosts (P ≤ 0.05). There also was a significant difference in the aggressiveness of isolates pathogenic on bitter gourd from Batangas and Bulacan (P ≤ 0.05) but isolates from Batangas and Bulacan had similar aggressiveness as bottle gourd (P ≥ 0.05). Aggressiveness of F. oxysporum on 7-day-old bitter gourd and bottle gourd was significantly different compared to those on 1-month-old plants, demonstrating an effect of the host age onaggressiveness. Correlations between aggressiveness of F. oxysporum isolates on 7-day-old and 1-month-old bitter gourd and bottle gourd were moderate (r = 0.63, 0.78). Out of 12 isolates from bottle gourd, only one isolate was pathogenic on 7-day-old bitter gourd. Four of the isolates from bitter gourd were pathogenic on 7-day-old bottle gourd but not on 1-month-old bottle gourd. No cross infection was observed on mature plants.


Herradura L.H.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Lobres M.A.N.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Davide R.G.,University of the Philippines at Los Baños | De Waele D.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

The in vitro reproductive fitness on carrot discs and the in vivo pathogenicity on selected FHIA (Fundación Hondureña de Investigaciónes Agrícola) banana hybrids of a population of Radopholus similis isolated from banana in Davao, Philippines, were investigated at the Bureau of Plant Industry, Davao City, Philippines. It was shown that on carrot discs following inoculation with 25 females, the Davao population had the highest population density and multiplication rate compared with two other R. similis populations from the Philippines (Los Baños and Quezon) and two exotic populations of R. similis (from Uganda and Indonesia). According to the Gompertz model, the Davao population also had a short lag phase and a high maximum specific growth. Following inoculation with one single female, the Davao population also had the highest multiplication rate and the highest proportion of juveniles and females compared with the other four populations included in the experiments. Nine weeks after inoculation with 1000 vermiforms, the R. similis population from Davao had reduced the plant height of the FHIA hybrids included in the experiment (FHIA-3, FHIA-4, FHIA-5, FHIA-18 and FHIA-23) on average by 37%, plant girth by 5.3-40.9%, shoot weight by 20.1-65.8% and root weight by 31.7-69.7%, indicating the high pathogenicity of this population on banana. FHIA-4 was tolerant to R. similis infection. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Gergerich R.C.,University of Arkansas | Welliver R.A.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Gettys S.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Osterbauer N.K.,Plant Health Program | And 7 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2015

The expansion of fruit production and markets into new geographic areas provides novel opportunities and challenges for the agricultural and marketing industries. Evidence that fruit consumption helps prevent nutrient deficiencies and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer has assisted in the expansion of all aspects of the fruit industry. In today's competitive global market environment, producers need access to the best plant material available in terms of genetics and health if they are to maintain a competitive advantage in the market. An ever-increasing amount of plant material in the form of produce, nursery plants, and breeding stock moves vast distances, and this has resulted in an increased risk of pest and disease introductions into new areas. One of the primary concerns of the global fruit industry is a group of systemic pathogens for which there are no effective remedies once plants are infected. These pathogens and diseases require expensive management and control procedures at nurseries and by producers locally and nationally. Here, we review (i) the characteristics of some of these pathogens, (ii) the history and economic consequences of some notable disease epidemics caused by these pathogens, (iii) the changes in agricultural trade that have exacerbated the risk of pathogen introduction, (iv) the path to production of healthy plants through the U.S. National Clean Plant Network and state certification programs, (v) the economic value of clean stock to nurseries and fruit growers in the United States, and (vi) current efforts to develop and harmonize effective nursery certification programs within the United States as well as with global trading partners. © 2015 The American Phytopathological Society.


Donovall III L.R.,Bureau of Plant Industry | VanEngelsdorp D.,Bureau of Plant Industry | VanEngelsdorp D.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society | Year: 2010

The initial results of the first formal survey of the bee fauna of Pennsylvania are reported. Specimens were examined from some 20 private, research and institutional collections in and around the state, as well as from pan-trapping and sweep-netting results from three years (20052007) of surveying by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) Apiary Inspection Service. Of the 371 species reported here, 150 are new state records, including 27 of the 98 species found in the PDA surveys. Non-native species are indicated along with the earliest year of collection in the state and, for all species, the range of collection dates and the most recent year of collection are reported. © 2010 Kansas Entomological Society.


Van Engelsdorp D.,Bureau of Plant Industry | Van Engelsdorp D.,Pennsylvania State University | Speybroeck N.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Speybroeck N.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

Colony collapse disorder (CCD), a syndrome whose defining trait is the rapid loss of adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is thought to be responsible for a minority of the large overwintering losses experienced by U.S. beekeepers since the winter 2006-2007. Using the same data set developed to perform a monofactorial analysis (PloS ONE 4: e6481, 2009), we conducted a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and interrelations among different risk variables in explaining CCD. Fifty-five exploratory variables were used to construct two CART models: one model with and one model without a cost of misclassifying a CCD-diagnosed colony as a non-CCD colony. The resulting model tree that permitted for misclassification had a sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 74%, respectively. Although factors measuring colony stress (e.g., adult bee physiological measures, such as fluctuating asymmetry or mass of head) were important discriminating values, six of the 19 variables having the greatest discriminatory value were pesticide levels in different hive matrices. Notably, coumaphos levels in brood (a miticide commonly used by beekeepers) had the highest discriminatory value and were highest in control (healthy) colonies. Our CART analysis provides evidence that CCD is probably the result of several factors acting in concert, making afflicted colonies more susceptible to disease. This analysis highlights several areas that warrant further attention, including the effect of sublethal pesticide exposure on pathogen prevalence and the role of variability in bee tolerance to pesticides on colony survivorship. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.


PubMed | Bureau of Plant Industry
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2016

Terminal shoot tips of sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.) are cultured to initiate and regenerate shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA). After 1 month, shoots, usually 4.5 cm long are separated and subcultured for multiplication. Regenerated shoots, about 6 cm long are rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Exposure of shoots to high humidity for the first 2 weeks and equal proportion (1:1:1) of sterile sand, compost, and coir dust as potting mix favors the development of whole sambong plants. Young shoots from in vitro-derived sambong plants could also be used for propagation.


PubMed | Bureau of Plant Industry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2010

Colony collapse disorder (CCD), a syndrome whose defining trait is the rapid loss of adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is thought to be responsible for a minority of the large overwintering losses experienced by U.S. beekeepers since the winter 2006-2007. Using the same data set developed to perform a monofactorial analysis (PloS ONE 4: e6481, 2009), we conducted a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and interrelations among different risk variables in explaining CCD. Fifty-five exploratory variables were used to construct two CART models: one model with and one model without a cost of misclassifying a CCD-diagnosed colony as a non-CCD colony. The resulting model tree that permitted for misclassification had a sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 74%, respectively. Although factors measuring colony stress (e.g., adult bee physiological measures, such as fluctuating asymmetry or mass of head) were important discriminating values, six of the 19 variables having the greatest discriminatory value were pesticide levels in different hive matrices. Notably, coumaphos levels in brood (a miticide commonly used by beekeepers) had the highest discriminatory value and were highest in control (healthy) colonies. Our CART analysis provides evidence that CCD is probably the result of several factors acting in concert, making afflicted colonies more susceptible to disease. This analysis highlights several areas that warrant further attention, including the effect of sublethal pesticide exposure on pathogen prevalence and the role of variability in bee tolerance to pesticides on colony survivorship.


PubMed | DuPont Pioneer, Advisor in Regulation, Imperial College London, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology | Year: 2016

Public input is often sought as part of the biosafety decision-making process. Information and communication about the advances in biotechnology are part of the first step to engagement. This step often relies on the developers and introducers of the particular innovation, for example, an industry-funded website has hosted various authorities to respond to questions from the public. Alternative approaches to providing information have evolved, as demonstrated in sub-Saharan Africa where non-governmental organizations and associations play this role in some countries and subregions. Often times, those in the public who choose to participate in engagement opportunities have opinions about the overall biosafety decision process. Case-by-case decisions are made within defined regulatory frameworks, however, and in general, regulatory consultation does not provide the opportunity for input to the overall decision-making process. The various objectives on both sides of engagement can make the experience challenging; there are no clear metrics for success. The situation is challenging because public input occurs within the context of the local legislative framework, regulatory requirements, and the peculiarities of the fairly recent biosafety frameworks, as well as of public opinion and individual values. Public engagement may be conducted voluntarily, or may be driven by legislation. What can be taken into account by the decision makers, and therefore what will be gathered and the timing of consultation, also may be legally defined. Several practical experiences suggest practices for effective engagement within the confines of regulatory mandates: (1) utilizing a range of resources to facilitate public education and opportunities for understanding complex technologies; (2) defining in advance the goal of seeking input; (3) identifying and communicating with the critical public groups from which input is needed; (4) using a clearly defined approach to gathering and assessing what will be used in making the biosafety decision; and (5) communicating using clear and simple language. These practices create a foundation for systematic methods to gather, acknowledge, respond to, and even incorporate public input. Applying such best practices will increase transparency and optimize the value of input from the public.


News Article | March 7, 2016
Site: www.reuters.com

Environmental advocates carry over their heads a giant purple globe, which participants say represents their unhappiness towards genetically modified organism (GMO) products, in Manila in this October 2, 2014 file photo. The five ministers that needed to sign the rules had done so as of Monday, Merle Palacpac, chief of the plant quarantine service at the Bureau of Plant Industry, told Reuters. The new rules will now be forwarded to the Department of Agriculture, with Palacpac saying they would likely take effect by April. The Supreme Court in December halted the issuance of fresh permits for planting or importing genetically modified crops until the new rules were in place, putting in limbo nearly 1 million corn farmers and buyers of GM soybean meal, the Philippines' top GMO import. The court was acting on a petition by environmental activists led by Greenpeace, with the move likely closely watched by governments elsewhere as the Philippines is seen as a trailblazer for GMO. Greenpeace on Monday said it would take further action against the new GMO guidelines. "Definitely there will be action but we haven't decided (what it will be) yet," said Greenpeace campaigner Leonora Lava, adding that it would discuss options with other petitioners and allied groups. The new rules are expected to improve transparency in the approval process for permits to plant, import and commercialize GM products, including enhanced regulations on risk assessment and involvement of local governments, said Palacpac. "The technical working group made sure that these concerns by the Supreme Court have been addressed," she said. The government had aimed to have the regulations signed by the five ministers on Feb. 24, but that was delayed as some officials were traveling. While importers of soymeal welcomed the new regulations, they were concerned it could now take longer to get permission to ship in GM crops. Under the old rules, feed millers were only required to get sanitary and phytosanitary import clearance for soybean meal that they shipped in, said an industry source. But it is unclear whether they now will also have to get a separate biosafety permit, the source added. The Philippines was the first in Asia to approve commercial cultivation of a GM crop for animal feed and food in 2002 when it allowed GM corn planting. It has also allowed GM crop imports for more than a decade. Around 70 percent of its corn output is GM. GMO's critics argue the technology poses risks to public health, while advocates say such fears have not been scientifically proven and that high-yielding genetically altered crops would help ensure food security as the world's population grows.

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