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Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | Kaeosanit S.,Songkhla Provincial Public Health Office | Untimanon O.,Bureau of Occupational and Environmental Diseases
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2011

In southern Thailand, the wooden boat building and repair industry uses powdered lead oxide (Pb3O4, or red lead) in the caulking process. This had been shown to be a significant source of contamination in the workplace and the communities. This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the amount of lead oxide used in the region and to document the management of hazardous waste product in this industry. All boatyards in southern Thailand registered to the Ministry of Industry were visited with walk-through observation. After consent, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted among workers and boatyard owners who rented out the space for building and repairing the boats. Of the 63 active boatyards identified, approximately 26 tons of lead oxide was used to repair approximately 8,000 boats each year. Due to the casual employment system in this industry, no facility for the protection of workers and the environment from lead contamination exists. The findings indicate the need for further studies on the extent of contamination in the broader area. Intervention programmes are also urgently needed to reduce the release of this hazardous waste into the community. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Untimanon O.,Bureau of Occupational and Environmental Diseases | Geater A.,Prince of Songkla University | Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | Saetia W.,Office of Disease Prevention and Control 11 | Verkasalo R.K.,Kuopio University Hospital
Journal of Occupational Health | Year: 2012

Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify the relative contributions to surface lead contamination of boat-caulkers' houses of three contamination modes, namely "take-home" lead from the caulker, "natural" spatial dispersal from boatyard to household and "redistribution" of accumulated lead-laden dust within the house. Methods: Boat-caulkers' houses situated in areas surrounding boat repair yards were recruited. Caulkers' houses that were located close together were divided into location-matched pairs, within which one was randomly assigned to be given a cleaning anddesignated a CL house, and the other was to be left uncleaned and designated a NCL house. Geographically isolated caulker's houses were randomly assigned to one of the two categories. The nearest non-boatyard worker's house (NB) was additionally recruited for each set. The surface lead loading rate (SLLR), defined asthe mass of lead deposited in dust per unit area of surface per unit time, was measured over a period of 3 mo in all houses, and the data were modeled using linear mixed effects regression. Results: Adjustedvalues of SLLR differed only slightly between CL and NCL houses (0.96 to 1.02 times) but were between 1.65 and 2.03 times higher in CL and NCL houses than inNB houses depending on proximity to the boatyard and between 2.12 and 2.61 times higher in houses within one km of a boatyard than in more distant houses depending on category of house. Conclusions: Newly deposited dust lead likely resulted from the take-home and spatial dispersion modes. The contribution of redistribution is very small. Source


Zhou H.,University of Fukui | Kusaka Y.,University of Fukui | Tamura T.,University of Fukui | Suganuma N.,Kochi University | And 11 more authors.
Industrial Health | Year: 2012

The 60-film set was developed by experts (Expert Group) for examining 8 indices: sensitivity (X 1) and specificity (X 2) for pneumoconiosis, sensitivity(X 3) and specificity for (X 4) large opacities, sensitivity (X 5) and specificity (X 6) for pleural plaque, profusion increment consistency for small opacities (X 7), and shape differentiation for small opacities (X 8) of physicians' reading skills on pneumoconiosis X-ray according to ILO 2000 Classification. The aim of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the exam film set for evaluating physicians' reading skills. 29 physicians (Al-Group) and 24 physicians (A2-Group) attended the 1st and 2nd Asian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconioses (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attended Brazilian training course. After training, they took examination of reading 60-film exam set. The examinees' reading results in terms of 8 indices were compared between the examinee groups and the Expert Group by parametric unpaired /-test. The Examinee Group consisting of Al-Group, A2-Group and B-Group was inferior to the Expert Group in all indices. There was no significant difference for X 7 of Al-Group, X 7 and X 8 of A2-Group (p>0.05) compared with the Expert Group. There was a significant difference in X 8 at /K0.05 between Al-Group and A2-Group, in X 3 at /><0.05 between Al-Group and B-Group, in both Xj and in X 3 at/>0.05 between A2-Group and B-Group. Accordingly, the 60-film set providing 8 indices designed might be a good method for evaluation of the physicians' reading proficiency at different training settings. © 2012 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Source


Zhou H.,University of Fukui | Kusaka Y.,University of Fukui | Tamura T.,University of Fukui | Suganuma N.,Kochi University | And 12 more authors.
Industrial Health | Year: 2012

29 physicians (A1-Group) and 24 physicians (A 2-Group) attending the 1st and 2nd "A sian Intensive Reader of Pneumoconiosis" (AIR Pneumo) training course, respectively, and 22 physicians (B-Group) attending the Brazilian training course took the examination of reading the 60-film set. The objective of the study was firstly to investigate the factor structure of physicians' proficiency of reading pneumoconiosis chest X-ray, and secondly to examine differences in factor scores between groups. Reading results in terms of the 8-index of all examinees (Examinee Group) were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. A 4-factor was analyzed to structure the 8-index: the specificity for pneumoconiosis, specificity for large opacities, specificity for pleural plaque and shape differentiation for small opacities loaded on the Factor 1; the sensitivity for pneumoconiosis and sensitivity for large opacities loaded on the Factor 2; the sensitivity for pleural plaque loaded on the Factor 3; the profusion increment consistency loaded on the Factor 4. 4-Factor scores were compared between each other of the three groups. The Factor 2 scores in A1 and A2 groups were significantly higher than in B-Group. Four factors could reflect four aspects of reading proficiency of pneumoconiosis X-ray, and it was suggested that 4-factor scores could also assess the attained skills appropriately. © 2012 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Source


Untimanon O.,Bureau of Occupational and Environmental Diseases | Untimanon O.,Prince of Songkla University | Geater A.,Prince of Songkla University | Chongsuvivatwong V.,Prince of Songkla University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

A new dust-collecting device was developed to assess surface lead loading rates in houses in communities contaminated with lead oxide dust used for caulking in nearby boat-repair yards. The device consists of two small glass sheets with total area of 1,200 cm2 placed in two plastic trays suspended from the ceiling in the house for 3 months before wiping and sending the dust specimen for determination of lead content using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After a pilot trial in four households, further data were collected from 43 matched pairs of boat-caulkers' and neighboring control households. All devices were retained in the house for 3 months without any complaint. Static measurements of lead dust levels were also assessed in all households. The values significantly discriminated high from low lead exposure households (p = 0.015) and provided good correlations with floor lead loading (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.39 to 0.62) and dust lead content (r = 0.53 to 0.64). This sampling method is an alternative to others which consume more household space or require a longer collection period. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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