Brooks S.P.J.,Bureau of Nutritional science |
Kalmokoff M.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2012
Probiotics and prebiotics present regulators with challenges because they require a demonstrated positive health outcome and proof that the prebiotic or probiotic is the agent of action once safety aspects have been satisfied. Thus, probiotic and prebiotic definitions are important because they will set the criteria by which these materials will be judged within the regulatory sphere. Use of the terms probiotic and prebiotic are, themselves, considered health claims in some jurisdictions, so that both product health claims and product content labeling may be regulated. Currently accepted definitions of prebiotic and probiotic make it easier to draw a straight line between ingestion and health outcome for probiotics but much more difficult for prebiotics, where a health outcome must be linked to changes in specific bacterial species within the gut microbial community. These challenges highlight the difficulties facing regulatory bodies and the scientific community when emerging science is turned into consumable product. © 2012 Publishing Technology.
Bhatia J.,American Academy of Pediatrics |
Courant G.,Breastfeeding Committee for Canada |
Underhill L.,Bureau of Nutritional science
Paediatrics and Child Health (Canada) | Year: 2012
As more is learned about the importance of the intestinal microbiome to human health there is increasing interest in the potential benefits of probiotics. Probiotics are live micro-organisms which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health effect on the host by altering its microflora. Probiotics have been administered both prophylactically and therapeutically for various conditions. This statement definines the development and role of intestinal microflora, and examines the evidence supporting the use of different probiotics to treat common paediatric conditions, such as diarrhea, atopy, functional intestinal disorders and necrotizing enterocolitis. Recommendations to guide physicians in the judicious use of these products are offered. © Canadian Paediatric Society 2012.
Underhill L.,Bureau of Nutritional science
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013
With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Poon R.,Environmental Health Science Research Bureau |
Valli V.E.,VDx Veterinary Diagnostics |
Nimal Ratnayake W.M.,Bureau of Nutritional science |
Rigden M.,Environmental Health Science Research Bureau |
Pelletier G.,Environmental Health Science Research Bureau
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2013
Jatropha oil is an emerging feedstock for the production of biodiesels. The increasing use of this nonedible, toxic oil will result in higher potential for accidental exposures. A repeated-dose 28-day oral toxicity study was conducted to provide data for risk assessment. Jatropha oil diluted in corn oil was administered by gavage to male and female rats at 0.5, 5, 50 and 500mgkg-1 body weight per day for 28 consecutive days. Control rats were administered corn oil only. The growth rates and consumption of food and water were monitored. At necropsy, organs were weighed and hematological parameters assessed. Serum clinical chemistry and C-reactive protein were measured and histological examinations of organs and tissues were performed. Markedly depressed growth rate was observed in males and females receiving Jatropha oil at 500mgkg-1 per day. Decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were detected in females at 50 and 500mgkg-1 per day and in males at 500mgkg-1 per day. These changes were correlated to mild and reversible histological changes in male and female spleens. In the liver, a mild increase in portal hepatocytes cytoplasm density was observed in males and females, while periportal vacuolation was observed exclusively in females. Mild acinar proliferation was observed in the female mammary glands at all dose levels. It is concluded that Jatropha oil produces adverse effects on female rats starting at 50mgkg-1 per day with decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and at 500mgkg-1 per day in both genders in term of depressed growth rates. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Tamber S.,Bureau of Microbial Hazards |
Swist E.,Bureau of Nutritional science |
Oudit D.,Bureau of Microbial Hazards
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2016
Despite the increasing popularity of sprouted chia and flax seed powders, no data have been reported on their intrinsic physicochemical properties and background microflora. Here, we report the moisture content, water activity, pH, and fatty acid methyl ester and bacteriological profiles of 19 sprouted chia and flax seed samples, 10 of which were associated with an outbreak of salmonellosis in Canada and the United States. The physicochemical parameters of the Salmonella-positive samples did not differ significantly from those of the negative samples. However, the higher Enterobacteriaceae and coliform levels on the contaminated powders were associated with the presence of Salmonella. Enumeration of Salmonella by the most probable number (MPN) method revealed concentrations ranging from 1 MPN per 3 g of powder to 1 MPN per 556 g of powder. The results of this study demonstrate that low numbers of Salmonella may be linked to foodborne outbreaks.