Bureau of Meteorology BOM

Perth, Australia

Bureau of Meteorology BOM

Perth, Australia
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Wang X.-J.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Wang X.-J.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Wang X.-J.,Beijing Normal University | Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Water scarcity in China would possibly be aggravated by rapid increase in water demand for irrigation due to climate change. This paper focuses on the mechanism of climate change impact on regional irrigation water demand by considering the dynamic feedback relationships among climate change, irrigation water demand and adaptation measures. The model in implemented using system dynamics approach and employed in Baojixia irrigation district located in Shaanxi Province of China to analyses the changes in irrigation water demand under different climate change scenarios. Obtained results revealed that temperature will be the dominant factor to determine irrigation water demand in the area. An increase of temperature by 1 °C will result in net irrigation water demand to increase by about 12,050 × 104 m3 and gross water demand by about 20,080 × 104 m3 in the area. However, irrigation water demand will not increase at the same rate of temperature rise as the adaptation measures will eventually reduce the water demand increased by temperature rise. It is expected that the modeling approach presented in this study can be used in adopting policy responses to reduce climate change impacts on water resources. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Badosa J.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Calbo J.,University of Girona | McKenzie R.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | Liley B.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | And 3 more authors.
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2014

Cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) as a function of cloud cover and sunny conditions (from sky images) as well as of solar zenith angle (SZA) are assessed. These analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds reduce TR more than UV, in particular for obscured Sun conditions, low cloud fraction (<60%) and large SZA (>60°). Similarly, local short-time enhancement effects are stronger for TR than for UV, mainly for visible Sun conditions, large cloud fraction and large SZA. Two methods to estimate UVI are developed: (1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and (2) from TR measurements. Both methods may be used in practical applications, although Method 2 shows overall the best performance, as TR allows considering cloud optical properties. The mean absolute (relative) differences of Method 2 estimations with respect to measured values are 0.17 UVI units (6.7%, for 1 min data) and 0.79 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) units (3.9%, for daily integrations). Method 1 shows less accurate results but it is still suitable to estimate UVI: mean absolute differences are 0.37 UVI units (15%) and 1.6 SED (8.0%). Cloud effects on UV Index (UVI) and total solar radiation (TR) are assessed. The role of cloud cover and sunny conditions (from sky images) and of solar zenith angle is investigated. The analyses are undertaken for a southern-hemisphere mid-latitude site where a 10-years dataset is available. It is confirmed that clouds affect TR more than UVI, both in reducing and enhancing the cloud-free radiation. From the analyses, two methods to estimate UVI are developed: (1) from sky imaging cloud cover and sunny conditions, and (2) from TR measurements. Methods' estimations are compared with measurements. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.


Gies P.,Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency ARPANSA | Hooke R.,Public Health England | McKenzie R.,NIWA - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | O'Hagan J.,Public Health England | And 9 more authors.
Photochemistry and Photobiology | Year: 2015

Monitoring ambient solar UVR levels provides information on how much there is in both real time and historically. Quality assurance of ambient measurements of solar UVR is critical to ensuring accuracy and stability and this can be achieved by regular intercomparisons of spectral measurement systems with those of other organizations. In October and November of 2013 a solar UVR spectroradiometer from Public Health England (PHE) was brought to Melbourne for a campaign of intercomparisons with a new Bentham spectrometer of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and one at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), supported by New Zealand's National Institute for Water and Atmosphere (NIWA). Given all three spectroradiometers have calibrations that are traceable to various national standards, the intercomparison provides a chance to determine measurement uncertainties and traceability that support UV measurement networks in Australia, New Zealand and the UK. UV Index measurements from all three systems were compared and ratios determined for clear sky conditions when the scans from each instrument were within 2 min of each other. While wavelengths below 305 nm showed substantial differences between the PHE unit and the two other systems, overall the intercomparison results were encouraging, with mean differences in measured UV Index between the BOM/NIWA and those of PHE and ARPANSA of <0.1% and 7.5%, respectively. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.


Wang X.,Basin Water | Lian Y.,Basin Water | Huang C.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Wang X.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2012

Due to freshwater supplement scarcity and heavy human activities, the fresh water wetland ecosystem in Yellow River Delta is facing disintegrated deterioration, and it is seriously affecting the health of the Yellow River ecosystem. This paper identifies the restoration objectives of wetland aiming to protect ecological and economic values and development as well as the water resources of the Yellow River. The hydraulic and groundwater coupling model and Landscape Ecological Decision and Evaluation Support System (LEDESS) of the Yellow River Delta were established to calculate environmental flows of degraded wetlands. LEDESS is a computer-based model developed and used to assess and evaluate the effects of land-use changes on nature. In this study, LEDESS is used to assess and evaluate the ecological effects and the restoration possibilities considering several environmental flows' supplement scenarios. This included the changes of suitable habitat conditions and its ecological carrying capacities for indicator species, e. g., Red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis), Oriental stork (Ciconia boyciana), and Saunder's gull (Larus relictus), and changing of ecological patterns. The results showed that replenishing fresh water to wetlands is one of the effective adaptive measures to mitigate wetland degradation and improve its habitat quality and carrying capacities. This study indicated that landscape ecology approach is not only considered as a good way to solve complex problems in ecosystem management but also can be used to decide on the environmental flows and assess its ecological effects in large-scale wetland rehabilitation. This integrated method could make environmental flows estimated and assessment more rational than the results of hydrologic methods. It could assist decision makers to "see" the ecological effects after water supplementing and so alleviate the contradictions between environmental flows and production water demands, and can facilitate the implementation of environmental flows in most countries with water resources shortage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xiao-jun W.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Xiao-jun W.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Jian-yun Z.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Jian-yun Z.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 7 more authors.
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2011

Climate change and human activities have changed a number of characteristics of river flow in the northwest of China. Numerous problems such as water resource shortage, drying up of rivers, water pollution are the direct consequences of these changes. In this paper, we used the example of Yulin city in northwest China to assess the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving forces of annual river flow changes. Our research was based on the long-term time series of hydrological data from 1956 to 2005, to analyse annual flow in four main rivers (Kuye River, Tuwei River, Wuding River and Jialu River). The river flow depends upon the runoff characteristics of the river catchment, therefore we used variation ratio, variation index, unevenness, Runoff-Concentration Degree (RCD) and Runoff-Concentration Period (RCP) to determine the change in runoff characteristics of the four main rivers flows of the Yulin city. We tested the tendency of runoff by the Mann-Kendall non-parameter statistical method to obtain the temporal evolution law. At the same time, Kriging spatial interpolation and GIS were used to derive the spatial evolution law. The dates of climate change (precipitation) and human activities were also used to calculate the driving forces for annual runoff changes of the rivers' catchments. Through the accumulation curves and multi-recursive techniques, we built the correlation between precipitation and runoff. The driving factors for annual runoff change were then calculated by using the runoff coefficient method. Results showed that the distribution of annual runoff was uneven and had a small accumulation in July and August, especially in Kuye River, and there seemed to be a significant reducing trend in annual runoff. Isolines and the thematic map of Mann-Kendall tests U(R) revealed that the Tuwei River's catchment is the most affected catchment, with annual runoff substantially changed. At the 5% significance level, precipitation did not significantly drop compared with annual runoff. We also found that precipitation is not the only factor responsible for the decreased annual runoff. Therefore we included human activities affect in this case study by using the past 25 years land use, water conservancy and urbanisation data. We discriminated the impacts of climate change and human activities on the surface runoff by multi-recursive analysis method and runoff coefficient method. The results showed that human activities are the direct cause for the changes of river runoff. The results of the study also revealed that the Wuding and Jialu rivers had the most and the least changes in the runoff respectively; this phenomenon should be seriously considered for future water resources planning and management. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Wang X.-J.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Wang X.-J.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Zhang J.-Y.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 6 more authors.
IAHS-AISH Publication | Year: 2011

A System Dynamics (SD) approach, focusing on water demand forecasting, was applied and developed based on the analysis of dynamic interactions among physical elements (natural runoff, groundwater recharge), environmental (water quality, ecosystem preservation) and socio-economic (population growth, water consumption, policy and management) aspects of water management elements in a regional water resources system. Through the analysis of multi-feedbacks and nonlinear interactions among system elements, a complex SD model was developed and applied in Tuwei River in the middle reaches of the Yellow River using water demand theory. The practical verification of the model shows that the relative error is small; therefore the model is reasonable structured to mimic the actual situation. Furthermore, total water demand of the whole basin can be also forecasted under the future changes of population, economic and climate scenario, and then propose the sustainable strategy for water demand management to achieve the goal of sustainable development in the whole basin. Copyright © 2011 IAHS Press.


Wang X.-J.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Wang X.-J.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Zhang J.-Y.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 6 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2012

Yellow River, is designated as "the cradle of Chinese civilization" and played a key role not only in the country's economic development but also in the historic and cultural identity of the Chinese people. With the rapid economic development and population growth, water demand for industry and households has increased significantly in the Yellow River basin; this has caused an increasing gap between water supply and demand. Competing water demands triggered conflicts between disparate water users on different scales such as the rich and the poor, or between different sectors and regions, such as domestic and agriculture, agriculture and industry, upstream and downstream, rural and urban areas, etc. Ensuring equity in water supply for conflicting water users is one of the major challenges that facing water managers and in particular water management in the Yellow River basin. In this paper, a method has been developed to calculate the Gini coefficient of water use as an indicator to measure the equality in domestic water supply. A dual domestic water use structure model is employed for this purpose. The developed method is subsequently applied to assess the equality in domestic water supply in the Yellow River. Data of population growth, domestic water use and economic development over the time period 1999-2006 are used to calculate the Gini coefficient of water use over the same length of period. The result shows a decreasing trend in Gini coefficient of domestic water use in the Yellow River basin after 2001 which means domestic water use is becoming more and more equitable in the basin. The study justifies that the Gini coefficient of water use can be used and recommended as a useful tool for the water management especially in the context of global change. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xiao-jun W.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Xiao-jun W.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Jian-yun Z.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Jian-yun Z.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 7 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2012

Water Scarcity and drought are recurrent phenomena in China. In the context of environmental change, an increasing tendency in drought frequency and severity is observed in China in recent years. Therefore, it is imperative to take necessary initiatives to reduce the impacts of drought. In this paper, an attempt is made to identify the best water management strategies to cope with droughts. For this objective the records of historical droughts and their impacts in China over the period of 1950-2009 are analyzed. It is observed that the drought affected area has increased nearly by 12 folds and the drought damaged area has increased by about 22 times in China in last 60 years. Over 87,000 reservoirs were built with a total water storage capacity of about 7,064 billion m3 to cope with droughts. However, this structural supply-based management strategy was not enough to meet the increasing water demand caused by rapid economic development and population growth. A typical relationship between socio-economic development and water resources management strategy to attain sustainability in water management is developed in this study. The relationship shows that the demand-side water management strategies can be the best option to meet the challenges posed by increased severity of drought, population growth, economic development and possible climate change. The concept is later verified through the analysis of changing pattern of water consumptions by different sectors in last 60 years. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Wang X.-J.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Wang X.-J.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Zhang J.-Y.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Zhang J.-Y.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | And 6 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2011

Our planet is increasingly threatened by degradation in water quantity and quality due to climate change, population growth and development pressures. Water shortage is one of the most challenging environmental problems to humankind in the 21st century under the changing climate. Water shortages and scarcity escalate risks to food security and economic viability. For decades, water management has been dominated by supply oriented paradigm of expanding the capacity of accessible water (e. g. building dams). While large scale infrastructure projects provided effective solutions for chronic water crises in the past, they have come at expensive, irreversible and delayed ecological, economic and social costs. As more questions are raised concerning over reliance on infrastructure solutions, discussions about a sustainable future suggest a greater focus on the demand side of the equation is needed. In this paper, we use multi-recursive and runoff coefficient analysis methods to analyze the annual runoff of the mainstreams (Kuye River, Tuwei River, Wuding River and Jialu River) in the middle reaches of Yellow River. The main objective is to estimate the impacts of climate change and human activity on water resources in the study area and test the potential of water demand management to lessen the gap between supply and demand. Results show remarkable drop in the average annual runoff as a combined effect of climate change and human activity. Moreover, results show that human activities are the direct reason for the changes of river runoff, and the proportion of human activities account the biggest is Wuding river, next is Kuye river, Jialu river is smallest, these changes lead to the decrease of river runoff, and even drying up in recent years. This result highlights the importance of using WDM to diminish the increasing gap between demand and supply. Motivated by this, the paper presents a comprehensive framework for implementation WDM in the middle reaches of Yellow River. The framework includes a wide range of instruments: legislative, economic, technological and educational. The core step of the framework, collaboration among water planners, water service providers and end-users lies as an essential mechanism for achieving long term trade-offs between ecological and socio-economic water needs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xiao-jun W.,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research | Xiao-jun W.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | Xiao-jun W.,Chinese Ministry of Water Resources | Jian-yun Z.,Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute | And 10 more authors.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2014

Water resources are an integral part of the socio-economic-environmental system. Water resources have dynamic interactions with related social, economic and environmental elements, as well as regulatory factors that are characterized by non-linear and multi-loop feedbacks. In this paper, a complex System Dynamic (SD) model is used to study the relationship among population growth, economic development, climate change, management strategies and water resources, and identify the best management strategy to adapt with the changing environment in the Tuwei river basin of Northwest China. Three management alternatives viz. business as usual, water supply management and water demand management are studied under different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that water shortage rate in Tuwei river basin may increase up to 80 % by the year 2030 if current management practices are continued or the supply based management strategy is adopted. On the other hand, water demand management can keep the water shortage rate within a tolerable limit and therefore can be considered as the sustainable strategy for water resources management to maintain the economic growth and ecological status of the Tuwei river basin. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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