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McMahon J.M.,University of Rochester | Myers J.E.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Myers J.E.,Columbia University | Kurth A.E.,New York University | And 6 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2014

Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP - injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

Myers J.E.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Myers J.E.,Columbia University | Ellman T.M.,Columbia University | Westhoff C.,Columbia University
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Long-acting injectable (LAI) forms of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are in clinical trials, generating much hope for HIV prevention. But this is not the first time that an injectable form of preventive medication has emerged: the contraceptive agent depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has an important precedent. DMPA's long journey, its initial reception, and ongoing implementation challenges can help inform the field of HIV prevention as we plan for approval, acceptance, and scale-up of LAI-PrEP. Recent findings DMPA faced a long regulatory journey in the USA, with a lag of 25 years from initial application (1967) to approval (1992). Acceptance after introduction was rapid, but challenges hampered scale-up. Specific lessons learned include that extensive acceptability work is needed in parallel to product development. Also, low continuation rates, challenges with timing of initiation, and difficulty ensuring access for the most vulnerable populations have limited DMPA's impact. A new subcutaneous formulation presents opportunities for administration outside of clinical settings and for self-administration. Summary Those involved in LAI-PrEP development and those who plan to be involved in its future implementation must consider these lessons and possible solutions from DMPA to ensure a successful future for this new HIV prevention modality. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Estem K.S.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Catania J.,Oregon State University | Klausner J.D.,University of California at Los Angeles
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2016

Oral HIV self-testing is an innovative and potentially high-impact means to increase HIV-case identification globally. As a screening test, oral HIV self-testing offers the potential for increased adoption through greater convenience and privacy, and the potential to increase the proportion of the population who test regularly. Research on how best to translate the innovation of oral self-testing to high-risk populations is underway. Currently only one oral HIV self-test kit is FDA-approved (OraQuick In-Home HIV Test) and available for retail sale. In the present report we review recent studies on the dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing. Prior work has focused primarily on adoption, but recent studies have begun to identify methods for improving dissemination and problems associated with self-implementation. At present a major barrier to wider adoption is the relatively high retail cost of the oral HIV test kit. Significant but minor barriers are represented by overly complex instructional materials for some population segments, and dissemination programs of unknown efficacy. Theoretical and practical suggestions for conducting research on dissemination, adoption, and implementation of oral HIV testing are discussed. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Myers J.E.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Myers J.E.,Columbia University | Sepkowitz K.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior-many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic. © 2013 The Author.

Rucinski K.B.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Mensah N.P.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Sepkowitz K.A.,Bureau of HIV AIDS Prevention and Control | Sepkowitz K.A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2013

Understanding prior knowledge and experience with pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical to its implementation. In fall 2011, NYC MSM were recruited via banner advertisements on six popular dating websites and asked questions about their knowledge and use of PrEP (n = 329). Overall, 123 (38 %) respondents reported knowledge of PrEP, of whom two (1.5 %) reported PrEP use in the past 6 months. Knowledge of PrEP was associated with high educational attainment, gay identity and recent HIV testing, suggesting an uneven dissemination of information about PrEP and missed opportunities for education. To avoid disparities in use during scale-up, MSM should be provided with additional information about PrEP. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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