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Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Motlagh M.E.,Bureau of Population Family and School Health | Roomizadeh P.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Abtahi S.-H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: This study aimed to test a potential model of the relationship between various cardiometabolic risk factors including obesity, unhealthy diet, low physical activity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure in a large population-based sample of children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, a representative sample of 5,528 students aged 10-18 years was selected by multistage random cluster sampling from 27 provinces of Iran. Demographic, anthropometric, biological, and biochemical factors were determined. Structural equation modeling (path analysis) was applied to evaluate the causal relationship between these variables. Results: The mean age of study participants was 14.7 ± 2.41 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.4 ± 4.1. Higher socioeconomic status was directly associated with unhealthy diet, low physical activity and BMI in both sexes. Age had a positive direct effect on low physical activity in both sexes. BMI showed the greatest direct effect on total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure in comparison with the direct effects of unhealthy diet and low physical activity. BMI was associated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. Conclusions: No previous study has used path analysis for determining the interactions examined in this study among a nationally representative sample of children in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The results of this study underline the imperative need for the weight loss and lifestyle change from childhood as the first-line preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome and noncommunicable diseases. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Bureau of Health and Fitness, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Qom University of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) | Year: 2014

The consumption of high energy and low nutritional content foods, which are known as junk foods, has increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between junk food intake and mental health in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents.Data were obtained from a surveillance system entitled CASPIAN-IV (Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable Disease) study of school students, ages 6 to 18 y in Iran. The students and their parents completed two sets of reliable questionnaires obtained from Global School Health Survey translated to Persian. The student questionnaire comprised several questions such as psychiatric distress (worry, depression, confusion, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, and worthless) and violent behaviors (physical fighting, being a victim, and bullying). The junk foods consisted of sweets, sweetened beverages, fast foods, and salty snacks.In the sample of 13 486 children and adolescents, the frequency of junk food consumption was significantly associated with psychiatric distress (P < 0.001). There was a significant association between violent behaviors and intake of junk foods (P < 0.001) except for sweets, whereas the association between sweetened beverages consumption and being a victim was not significant (P > 0.05). Additionally, the results of logistic regression showed that daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks significantly increased the odds of self-reported psychiatric distress. Also, daily consumption of salty snacks was significantly associated with violent behavior, including physical fighting (odds ratio [OR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.60), being a victim (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.04-1.37), and bullying (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.82).Junk food consumption may increase the risk for psychiatric distress and violent behaviors in children and adolescents. Improvement of eating habits toward healthier diets may be an effective approach for improving mental health.


PubMed | Health Science University, Bureau of Health and Fitness, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Public health | Year: 2015

The aim of this study is to assess the association between breakfast intake with anthropometric measurements and blood pressure among Iranian children and adolescents. The second goal is to investigate the correction of breakfast consumption with other food consumption behaviors.In this national survey, 13,486 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 31 provinces of Iran (2011-2012). Physical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Food habits were assessed by self-reported questionnaire. Breakfast frequency was defined as skippers (eating breakfast 0-2 days/week), semi-skippers (eating breakfast 3-4 days/week) and non-skippers (eating breakfast 5-7 days/week). The data were analyzed by the STATA package.Of the participants, 18.9%, 13.2% and 67.9%, were breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among breakfast skippers were higher than non-skippers counterparts (P-value < 0.001). The percentage rates of abdominal obesity among breakfast skippers and non-skippers group were 22.6% (CI 95%: 21-24.3) and 17.9% (CI 95%: 17-18.6), respectively. Blood pressure did not significantly differ between non-skippers students and breakfast skippers (P-value = 0.1). Non-skipping adolescents ate more fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and drank milk more frequently compared with breakfast skipper; while the skippers showed a higher intake of salty snack, soft drinks, packed fruit juice and fast foods (all P-value < 0.001).Regular breakfast consumption is significantly associated with lower body fatness and healthier dietary habits but that further study, using controlled intervention trials, is required to test whether this represents a causal relationship.


Azadbakht L.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Saraf-Bank S.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: Both high and low birth weights (HBW and LBW) are risk factors for adulthood diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of birth weight with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mental problems among Iranian school-aged children. Methods: This national multicenter study of school-aged children entitled CASPIAN III was conducted among 5528 students in ranging from ages 10 to 18 y. Biochemical indices and anthropometric measurements were collected. Mental health was assessed by questionnaire. To investigate the association between birth weight categories and CVD risk factors and mental problems, multivariate logistic regression was used. Results: HBW adolescents were at higher risk for elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (Ptrend<0.05), low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (Ptrend < 0.05), and lower risk for general obesity (Ptrend < 0.05) compared with the LBW category. HBW had no significant association with mental problems (Ptrend > 0.05) compared with LBW adolescents. The results of regression analysis, which considered normal birth weight as the reference group, showed that LBW students had lower risk for overweight and obesity (P < 0.01), as well as higher DBP (P < 0.05) but they were at higher risk for lower levels of HDL-C (P < 0.01). Furthermore, birth-weight categories had a U-shaped relationship with mental problems and sleep disorders (P < 0.05). Risk for confusion was higher among the LBW group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings from this population-based study revealed a positive relation between birth weight categories and CVD risk factors. Compared with students born with normal weight, those born with HBW and LBW were at higher risk for mental problems, sleep disorders, and confusion. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Ardalan G.,Adolescents and School Health | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Motlagh M.E.,Family and School Health | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objectives: As the first, to our knowledge, nationwide study in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), this study aimed to investigate the association of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of the pediatric population in Iran. The second objective was to provide the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and the percentiles of serum 25(OH)D in the study population. Methods: This national population-based study was conducted among 1100 Iranian students living in 27 provinces in Iran. The association of 25(OH)D with each cardiometabolic risk factor was determined after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference. Results: Participants consisted of 1095 students (52% boys) with a mean age of 14.74 ± 2.61 y. The median 25(OH)D level corresponded to a vitamin D insufficiency level: 12.70 ng/mL in boys and 13.20 ng/mL in girls. Overall, 40% of participants were vitamin D deficient, and 39% had vitamin D insufficiency. There were no significant differences in these findings between boys and girls. Adjusted regression analysis revealed a significant weak inverse association of 25(OH)D with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This association was significantly positive with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with fasting plasma glucose and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the pediatric population of a sunny region. Our findings also revealed an association of hypovitaminosis D with many cardiometabolic risk factors from childhood; these associations were independent of obesity indexes. It is of special concern that the highly prevalent disorders of low 25(OH)D and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in children and adolescents of the MENA region had significant association. The clinical importance of our findings needs to be confirmed in longitudinal studies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Rahmanian M.,University of Yazd | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Qorbani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Introduction: Our aim was to compare changes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) curves of Iranian children by comparing the results of two national surveys of a surveillance program, i.e. CASPIAN-I (2003- 2004) and CASPIAN-III (2009-2010). The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among 10-18-yearold Iranian children and adolescents. Material and methods: This study was performed among students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces of Iran, as part of a national survey of school student high risk behavior entitled CASPIAN-III, conducted in 2009-2010. Results: We evaluated 5088 school students (50.2% boys). In rural areas, underweight was more common in boys and overweight and obesity in girls. In urban areas underweight and obesity were more common in boys, whereas overweight was more common in girls. The highest prevalence of underweight (23.5%) was seen in students aged 13 years and the lowest (11.4%) in those aged 18 years. Underweight was significantly more common in rural than in urban areas (22.1% vs. 15.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001) and overweight/ obesity was more common in urban than in rural areas. Compared with the findings in 2003-2004, the overall prevalence of elevated body mass index (16.6%) including obesity (9.1%) and overweight (7.5%) as well as underweight (17.5%) increased from 2003 to 2010. Conclusions: In recent years, the double burden of nutritional disorders has increased among Iranian children and adolescents, especially in rural areas. This change may be related to epidemiologic transition, notably in terms of nutrition transition and rapid changes in lifestyle habits. This finding is an important issue for policy-makers for interventional preventive programs.


Shafiee G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2013

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian pediatrics. Methods: the study participants considered of 5,625 school students aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of the national school-based surveillance system (CASPIAN-III). They were classified into three groups based on the number of days they ate breakfast: "regular breakfast eater" (6-7days/week), "often breakfast eater" (3-5days/week), and "seldom breakfast eater" (0-2 days/week). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and generalized obesity were included as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the breakfast intake category and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: the number of subjects classified as "regular", "often" and "seldom" breakfast eaters were 2,653(47.3%), 1,327(23.7%) and 1,624(29.0%), respectively. The average of triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were higher in the "seldom breakfast eater" group (P for trend<0.001), whereas the mean of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in this group than their other counterparts. Seldom breakfast eaters had an increased risk of obesity, elevated TG and LDL-C, as well as low HDL-C compared to "regular breakfast eaters". The risk of MetS was significantly increased in subjects who seldom ate breakfast (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.27). Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.


Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Heshmat R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Motlagh M.E.,Family and School Health | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: A school-based surveillance system entitled the childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of Adult Noncommunicable disease (CASPIAN) Study is implemented at national level in Iran. This paper presents the methods and primary findings of the third survey of this surveillance system. Methods: This national survey was performed in 2009-2010 in 27 provinces of Iran among 5570 students and one of their parents. In addition to physical examination, fasting serum was obtained. Body mass index was categorized based on the World Health Organization growth charts. Findings: Data of 5528 students (2726 girls, 69.37% urban, mean age 14.7 ± 2.4 years) were complete and are reported. Overall, 17.3% (17.3% of girls and 17.5% of boys) were underweight, and 17.7% (15.5% of girls and 19.9% of boys) were overweight or obese. Abdominal obesity was documented in 16.3% of students (17.8% of girls and 15% of boys). 57.6% of families consumed breads, the staple food for Iranians, prepared with white flour. Most families (43.8% in urban areas and 58.6% in rural areas) used solid hydrogenated fats. 22.7% of students did not add salt to the table food. 14.2% of students reported to have a regular daily physical activity for at least 30 min a day. Overall, 10.4% of students (11.7% in urban areas and 7.3% in rural areas) reported that they used tobacco products, often waterpipe. 32.8% of students experienced at least three times of bullying in the previous 3 months. During the year prior to the survey, 14.46% of students had an injury needing the interference by school health providers. Conclusion: This survey is confirmatory evidence on the importance of establishing surveillance systems for risk behaviors to implement actionoriented interventions.


Izadi V.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Qorbani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objectives: Studies examining the relationship between breast-feeding (BF) duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have reached contradictory results. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BF duration and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods: This national population-based study was conducted among 5258 Iranian students, ages 10 to 18 y living in central cities of 27 provinces of Iran. Association was examined between duration of BF and adolescent blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Low birth weight was less frequent in the longer than in the shorter BF duration categories (P < 0.0001). Number of children was lower in individuals with longer BF duration (P = 0.01). Individuals with longer BF duration used more homemade food than those with shorter BF duration (P < 0.0001). Means of total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were lower in participants with the longest BF period compared with those with the shortest BF duration; this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). No significant association was found between BF duration and CVD risk factors in logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions: Although the long-term benefits of BF on preventing CVDs are well documented, controversies exist as to the association of BF duration with such beneficial effects. In this study, there was no substantial evidence that longer BF duration was protective against CVD risk factors among adolescents. More prospective studies are recommended to clarify this association. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Mansourian M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Marateb H.R.,University of Isfahan | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 7 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2012

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10-19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references.Methods: In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10-19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines.Results: The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10-14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15-19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P < 0.001). The mean BMI-for-age, and the average height-for-age of Iranian children aged 10-19 years were lower than the WHO 2007 and United states Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC2000) references.Conclusions: The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children's growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10-19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and over- nutrition, which should be considered in public health policy-making. © 2012 Mansourian et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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