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Kelishadi R.,Development Research Center | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Roomizadeh P.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Abtahi S.-H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Background/Aims: This study aimed to test a potential model of the relationship between various cardiometabolic risk factors including obesity, unhealthy diet, low physical activity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure in a large population-based sample of children and adolescents. Methods: In this nationwide study, a representative sample of 5,528 students aged 10-18 years was selected by multistage random cluster sampling from 27 provinces of Iran. Demographic, anthropometric, biological, and biochemical factors were determined. Structural equation modeling (path analysis) was applied to evaluate the causal relationship between these variables. Results: The mean age of study participants was 14.7 ± 2.41 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.4 ± 4.1. Higher socioeconomic status was directly associated with unhealthy diet, low physical activity and BMI in both sexes. Age had a positive direct effect on low physical activity in both sexes. BMI showed the greatest direct effect on total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure in comparison with the direct effects of unhealthy diet and low physical activity. BMI was associated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. Conclusions: No previous study has used path analysis for determining the interactions examined in this study among a nationally representative sample of children in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The results of this study underline the imperative need for the weight loss and lifestyle change from childhood as the first-line preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome and noncommunicable diseases. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Azadbakht L.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Saraf-Bank S.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective: Both high and low birth weights (HBW and LBW) are risk factors for adulthood diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of birth weight with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mental problems among Iranian school-aged children. Methods: This national multicenter study of school-aged children entitled CASPIAN III was conducted among 5528 students in ranging from ages 10 to 18 y. Biochemical indices and anthropometric measurements were collected. Mental health was assessed by questionnaire. To investigate the association between birth weight categories and CVD risk factors and mental problems, multivariate logistic regression was used. Results: HBW adolescents were at higher risk for elevated diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (Ptrend<0.05), low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (Ptrend < 0.05), and lower risk for general obesity (Ptrend < 0.05) compared with the LBW category. HBW had no significant association with mental problems (Ptrend > 0.05) compared with LBW adolescents. The results of regression analysis, which considered normal birth weight as the reference group, showed that LBW students had lower risk for overweight and obesity (P < 0.01), as well as higher DBP (P < 0.05) but they were at higher risk for lower levels of HDL-C (P < 0.01). Furthermore, birth-weight categories had a U-shaped relationship with mental problems and sleep disorders (P < 0.05). Risk for confusion was higher among the LBW group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings from this population-based study revealed a positive relation between birth weight categories and CVD risk factors. Compared with students born with normal weight, those born with HBW and LBW were at higher risk for mental problems, sleep disorders, and confusion. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Ardalan G.,Adolescents and School Health | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Shariatinejad K.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objectives: As the first, to our knowledge, nationwide study in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), this study aimed to investigate the association of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] levels with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally representative sample of the pediatric population in Iran. The second objective was to provide the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and the percentiles of serum 25(OH)D in the study population. Methods: This national population-based study was conducted among 1100 Iranian students living in 27 provinces in Iran. The association of 25(OH)D with each cardiometabolic risk factor was determined after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference. Results: Participants consisted of 1095 students (52% boys) with a mean age of 14.74 ± 2.61 y. The median 25(OH)D level corresponded to a vitamin D insufficiency level: 12.70 ng/mL in boys and 13.20 ng/mL in girls. Overall, 40% of participants were vitamin D deficient, and 39% had vitamin D insufficiency. There were no significant differences in these findings between boys and girls. Adjusted regression analysis revealed a significant weak inverse association of 25(OH)D with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This association was significantly positive with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not with fasting plasma glucose and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: We found a considerably high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the pediatric population of a sunny region. Our findings also revealed an association of hypovitaminosis D with many cardiometabolic risk factors from childhood; these associations were independent of obesity indexes. It is of special concern that the highly prevalent disorders of low 25(OH)D and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in children and adolescents of the MENA region had significant association. The clinical importance of our findings needs to be confirmed in longitudinal studies. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Rahmanian M.,University of Yazd | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Qorbani M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2014

Introduction: Our aim was to compare changes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) curves of Iranian children by comparing the results of two national surveys of a surveillance program, i.e. CASPIAN-I (2003- 2004) and CASPIAN-III (2009-2010). The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among 10-18-yearold Iranian children and adolescents. Material and methods: This study was performed among students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces of Iran, as part of a national survey of school student high risk behavior entitled CASPIAN-III, conducted in 2009-2010. Results: We evaluated 5088 school students (50.2% boys). In rural areas, underweight was more common in boys and overweight and obesity in girls. In urban areas underweight and obesity were more common in boys, whereas overweight was more common in girls. The highest prevalence of underweight (23.5%) was seen in students aged 13 years and the lowest (11.4%) in those aged 18 years. Underweight was significantly more common in rural than in urban areas (22.1% vs. 15.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001) and overweight/ obesity was more common in urban than in rural areas. Compared with the findings in 2003-2004, the overall prevalence of elevated body mass index (16.6%) including obesity (9.1%) and overweight (7.5%) as well as underweight (17.5%) increased from 2003 to 2010. Conclusions: In recent years, the double burden of nutritional disorders has increased among Iranian children and adolescents, especially in rural areas. This change may be related to epidemiologic transition, notably in terms of nutrition transition and rapid changes in lifestyle habits. This finding is an important issue for policy-makers for interventional preventive programs. Source

Shafiee G.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Kelishadi R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Qorbani M.,Health Science University | Motlagh M.E.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2013

Objective: this study aimed to evaluate the association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian pediatrics. Methods: the study participants considered of 5,625 school students aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of the national school-based surveillance system (CASPIAN-III). They were classified into three groups based on the number of days they ate breakfast: "regular breakfast eater" (6-7days/week), "often breakfast eater" (3-5days/week), and "seldom breakfast eater" (0-2 days/week). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and generalized obesity were included as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the breakfast intake category and cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: the number of subjects classified as "regular", "often" and "seldom" breakfast eaters were 2,653(47.3%), 1,327(23.7%) and 1,624(29.0%), respectively. The average of triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were higher in the "seldom breakfast eater" group (P for trend<0.001), whereas the mean of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in this group than their other counterparts. Seldom breakfast eaters had an increased risk of obesity, elevated TG and LDL-C, as well as low HDL-C compared to "regular breakfast eaters". The risk of MetS was significantly increased in subjects who seldom ate breakfast (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.27). Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved. Source

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