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Mueang Nonthaburi, Thailand

Muangchana C.,Bureau of General Communicable Diseases | Bishai D.,Johns Hopkins University
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2010

This study aimed to determine the private demand for Hib vaccination in Thailand. A willingness-to-pay (WTP) survey was performed by face-to-face interviews of 662 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in 4 regions of the country. Hypothetical incidence scenarios of Hib disease and hypothetical vaccine market scenarios were presented to the respondents. Regarding the scenarios, the respondents responded to discrete choice questions asking for their WTP for Hib vaccination for their children. Probit regression models were used to predict median WTP for Hib vaccine per child. A median WTP for Hib vaccine per child per vaccination course was estimated at THB 3,800, or USD 106. Although Hib disease incidence in Thailand is probably low, high monetary value of WTP for Hib vaccine probably reflects concern among Thai people about severity of the disease and good perceptions about safety and efficacy of the vaccine.

Kittikraisak W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Chittaganpitch M.,National Institute of Health | Gregory C.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Laosiritaworn Y.,Bureau of Epidemiology | And 3 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2016

Background: Each year, an influenza B strain representing only one influenza B lineage is included in the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3); a mismatch between the selected lineage and circulating viruses can result in suboptimal vaccine effectiveness. We modeled the added potential public health impact of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) that includes strains from both influenza B lineages compared to IIV3 on influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in Thailand. Methods: Using data on the incidence of influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths, vaccine effectiveness, and vaccine coverage from the 2007-2012 influenza seasons in Thailand, we estimated rates of influenza-associated outcomes that might be averted using IIV4 instead of IIV3. We then applied these rates to national population estimates to calculate averted illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths for each season. We assumed that the influenza B lineage included in IIV3 would provide a relative vaccine effectiveness of 75% against the other B lineage. Results: Compared to use of IIV3, use of IIV4 might have led to an additional reduction ranging from 0·4 to 14·3 influenza-associated illnesses per 100 000 population/year, <0·1 to 0·5 hospitalizations per 100 000/year, and <0·1 to 0·4 deaths per 1000/year. Based on extrapolation to national population estimates, replacement of IIV3 with IIV4 might have averted an additional 267-9784 influenza-associated illnesses, 9-320 hospitalizations, and 0-3 deaths. Conclusion: Compared to use of IIV3, IIV4 has the potential to further reduce the burden of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Nithikathkul C.,Mahasarakham University | Wongsaroj T.,Bureau of General Communicable Diseases | Buntilov V.,Mahidol University | Limsomboon J.,Mahidol University
International Journal of Geoinformatics | Year: 2012

Fish-borne infections continue to be a major public health problem, with more than 50 million people infected throughout the world. The watershed development scheme is an extended plan to achieve the objectives of Kwae Noi reservoir under His Majesty's Recommended Project involving a proper water management for consumption all year round Adequate water will increase the fertility of these areas and provide a suitable breeding place for various forms of aquatic life including fish. The popularity of uncooked, freshwater fish among the indigenous people in regions endemic for fish borne zoonotic parasites represents a continuing public health concern. Current reports indicate that metacercaria of pathogenic heterophyid trematodes are found in freshwater fish. In this study fish were examined for the presence of metacercariae by pressing or crushing using pairs of plexiglass. The infective stage of larvae in fish or metacercariae was detected using a stereo-microscope. Six species of small scale fresh water fish were examined namely, Puntius brevis Cyclocheilichthys apogon Cyclocheilichthys repasson, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Puntius orphoides and Labiobarbus lineatus. 5 species of these fish were positive for Opisthorchis viverrini infections (the exception was L. lineatus). However, they were all susceptible species to small intestinal fluke infections, and the infection rates were slightly higher than those of liver fluke infections. The highest prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (16.7%) was among Cyclocheilichthys apogon and the highest prevalence of small intestinal fluke infections (60%) was among Puntius brevis. This was in Ban Leam Katy Wang Thong District, Phitsanulob province, 1N 16 °44'0.8"E 100 °22' 24.0"]. The geographic information (latitude and longitude) associated with the infection rates among susceptible species of fresh water fish was recorded and used to build a geographical information system. A number of environmental parameters such as mean yearly temperature rainfall level, land use, NDYI, and population density were imported to the system as well. The development of GIS can be useful in establishing a prevention strategy form the transmission of food borne diseases from infected fish in water catchment areas. © Geoinformatics International.

Senachai P.,Khon Kaen University | Chomvarin C.,Khon Kaen University | Wongboot W.,Khon Kaen University | Boonyanugomol W.,Khon Kaen University | Tangkanakul W.,Bureau of General Communicable Diseases
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2013

Salmonella and Shigella spp are important causative agents of foodborne diseases. A sensitive, specific and rapid method is essential for detection of these pathogens. In this study, a duplex PCR method was developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples and compared with the traditional culture method. Enrichment broths for Salmonella spp recovery were also compared. Sensitivity of the duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp from pure culture was 103 CFU/ml (40 CFU/PCR reaction), and that of sterile cockle samples spiked with these two pathogens was 1 CFU/10 g of cockle tissue after 9 hours enrichment [3 hours in buffered peptone water (BPW), followed by 6 hours in Rappaport Vasiliadis (RV) broth or tetrathionate (TT) broth for Salmonella spp and 6 hours enrichment in Shigella broth (SB) for Shigella spp]. There was no significant difference in detection sensitivity between enrichment in RV and TT broths. Salmonella spp detected in cockles in Khon Kaen, Thailand by duplex PCR and culture method was 17% and 13%, respectively but Shigella spp was not detected. The duplex PCR technique developed for simultaneous detection of Salmonella and Shigella spp in cockle samples was highly sensitive, specific and rapid and could serve as a suitable method for food safety assessment.

Rodkvamtook W.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Ruang-areerate T.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Gaywee J.,Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical science AFRIMS | Richards A.L.,Naval Medical Research Center | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 174 trained troops had scrub typhus-like signs and symptoms and 9.8% of those were positive for O. tsutsugamushi-specific antibodies by indirect fluorescence antibody assay. One hundred thirty-five rodents were captured from this training area, 43% of them had antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Six new O. tsutsugamushi isolates were obtained from captured rodent tissues and successfully established in cell culture. Phylogenetic studies showed that these six isolates were either unique or related to a native genotype of previously described isolates from Thailand. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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