Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises

Belgorod, Russia

Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises

Belgorod, Russia
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Kavanagh P.,Trinity College Dublin | Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise's | Krupina N.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise's
Forensic Toxicology | Year: 2017

The structures of two indazole-derived synthetic cannabimimetics, a methyl ester, MDMB-FUBINACA, and an amide, ADB-FUBINACA, differ only in the terminal groups on the side chains. Based upon liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis of urine and blood samples collected from patients who were admitted to hospital with suspected drug intoxications and from postmortem forensic investigations, 38 metabolites were tentatively identified. Hydrolysis of the terminal groups (methyl ester and amide for MDMB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA, respectively) was found to be a common metabolic pathway for both compounds, leading to the formation of other common metabolites. Hydrolysed metabolites undergo subsequent monohydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, fluorobenzyl loss and dehydrogenation. Most of the metabolites of MDMB-FUBINACA were products of ester hydrolysis. Metabolites formed by hydrolysis, additional monohydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation and fluorobenzyl loss were also detected in forms of glucuronides. Two unhydrolysed metabolites were identified as products of hydroxylation and fluorobenzyl loss with subsequent glucuronidation. In the case of ADB-FUBINACA, products of mono- and dihydroxylation, dihydrodiol formation, dihydrodiol formation combined with monohydroxylation, monohydroxylation combined with dehydrogenation and fluorobenzyl loss with monohydroxylation were identified. Monohydroxylated and dihydrodiol metabolites were also detected in the form of glucuronides. The most abundant metabolites were products of ester hydrolysis in free and glucuronidated forms (for MDMB-FUBINACA) and of dihydrodiol formation (for ADB-FUBINACA). These compounds are recommended for toxicological screening. To our knowledge, there are no reports dealing with the detection of metabolites of MBDB-FUBINACA and ADB-FUBINACA in authentic human urine specimens. © 2017 Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer Japan


Kavanagh P.,Trinity College Dublin | Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Savchuk S.,National Research Center on Addiction | Mikhura I.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry | Formanovsky A.,RAS Shemyakin Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2013

The synthetic cannabinoid, UR-144 ((1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone), was identified in commercial 'legal high' products (herbal, resin, and powder). Along with this, six related compounds were detected. The most abundant one (2.1) was identified as 4-hydroxy-3,3,4-trimethyl-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pentan-1-one, a product of the electrophilic addition of water to the cyclopropane moiety in UR-144. Compound 2.1 was found to be undergo cyclisation which leads to the formation of two additional interconvertable compounds (2.3, tentatively identified as 1-pentyl-3-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)-1H-indole which is stable only in absence of water and also observed as GC artifact) and 2.2, a protonated derivative of 2.3 which is formed in acidic solutions. The remaining compounds were identified as possible degradation products of the group 2 compounds (4,4,5,5-tetramethyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one and 1-pentylindoline-2,3-dione) and intermediates or by-products from the synthesis of UR-144 ((1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone, 1-pentyl-1H-indole and 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)hexan-1-one). Pyrolysis of herbal products containing the group 2 compounds or UR-144 resulted in the formation of 3,3,4-trimethyl-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)pent-4-en-1-one (3). This was confirmed by separate pyrolysis of 2.1 and UR-144. Also, the two additional minor compounds, 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone and 1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-1-one, were detected. Pathways for these transformations are presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The synthetic cannabinoid, UR-144, was identified in commercial 'legal high' products. A related compound was also detected and identified as product of electrophilic addition of water to cyclopropane moiety. Separate pyrolysis of this hydrated products and UR-144 resulted in the formation of hexenyl compound. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..


Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Savchuk S.,Moscow State University | Melnik A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Moskaleva N.,Interlab Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

The Russian Federation prohibited the distribution of herbal mixtures with synthetic aminoalkylindoles JWH-018 and JWH-073, agonist cannabinoid receptors, on January 22, 2010. The lack or low content of their native compounds in urine requires detailed identification of their metabolites, which are excreted with urine and are present in blood. Using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified a series of metabolites in urine samples from humans and rats that were products of the following reactions: (a) mono- and dihydroxylation of the parent compounds with hydroxyl groups located at aromatic and aliphatic residues, (b) carboxylation, (c) N-dealkylation and (d) N-dealkylation and hydroxylation. The prevailing urinary metabolites in humans are monohydroxylated forms, while N-dealkylated and N-dealkyl monohydroxylated forms are found in rats. Twenty-six samples of herbal smoking mixtures with JWH-018, purchased in Russia, were analysed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Melnik A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Savchuk S.,Moscow State University | Simonov A.,Clinical Narcological Hospital | Rozhanets V.,Nacional Research Center on Addictions
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2011

Prohibition of some synthetic cannabimimetics (e.g., JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497) in a number of countries has led to a rise in new compounds in herbal mixtures that create marijuana-like psychotropic effects when smoked. The cannabimimetic JWH-250 (1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole) was identified in May 2009 by the German Federal Criminal Police as an new ingredient in herbal smoking mixtures. The absence or low presence of the native compound in urine samples collected from persons who had consumed JWH-250 necessitates a detailed identification of their metabolites, which are excreted with urine and present in blood. Using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS), we identified a series of metabolites in urine samples and serum sample from humans and urine samples from rats that were products of the following reactions: (a) mono- and dihydroxylation of aromatic and aliphatic residues of the parent compound, (b) trihydroxylation and dehydration of the N-alkyl chain, (c) N-dealkylation and (d) N-dealkylation and monohydroxylation. The prevailing urinary metabolites in humans were the monohydroxylated forms, while N-dealkylated and N-dealkyl monohydroxylated forms were found in rats. The detection of the mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites of JWH-250 in urine and serum samples by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS proved to be effective in determining consumption of this drug. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Kavanagh P.,Trinity College Dublin | Melnik A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Savchuk S.,National Research Center on Addiction | Simonov A.,Clinical Narcological Hospital
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Studies on the pyrolysis of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist UR-144 ((1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone) have shown that its major pyrolysis product is a tetramethylcyclopropane ring-opened alkene. Considering that smoking is a common way of ingesting synthetic cannabimimetics, the presence of the metabolites of this pyrolysis product would be expected in biological fluids. Using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods, a series of phase I metabolites of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product were detected in the urine samples from patients admitted to hospital with suspected drug intoxication. The metabolites were tentatively identified as the products of mono-hydroxylation, di-hydroxylation, mono-hydroxylation with formation of the carbonyl group on the N-alkyl chain, carboxylation and N-dealkylation with mono-hydroxylation. In the case of the UR-144 pyrolysis product, metabolites with hydration of the aliphatic double bond were also identified. The parent compounds were detected as trace amounts in some urine samples, and the hydrated derivative of the UR-144 pyrolysis product was detected in the majority of samples. The detection of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of UR-144 (LC-MS-MS) and mono-hydroxylated/with hydration metabolites of the UR-144 pyrolysis product (GC-MS) was found to be the most useful method of establishing UR-144 ingestion. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Kavanagh P.,Trinity College Dublin | Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Melnik A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises | Savchuk S.,National Research Center on Addiction | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

The synthetic phenylacetylindole cannabimimetics, JWH-203 and JWH-251, have been identified in 'herbal' smoking mixtures following the widespread legislative control of 'first generation' compounds such as JWH-018 and CP47, 497(C8). N-Alkylindole cannabimimetics (including phenylacetylindoles) undergo extensive metabolism and little or none of the parent compounds are found in urine. Utilizing GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, a series of JWH-203 and JWH-251 urinary metabolites have been tentatively identified. These are products of mono- and dihydroxylation, monohydroxylation combined with formation of carbonyl group on the N-pentyl chain, carboxylation of N-pentyl chain and N-dealkylation combined with monohydroxylation. Additionally, trihydroxylated metabolites were detected for JWH-203. No parent compounds were detected. The monohydroxylated metabolites with the hydroxyl group positioned on the N-pentyl chain were the most abundant and were found to be suitable for establishing ingestion of JWH-203 or JWH-250. Maximum urinary concentrations of chain-monohydroxylated metabolites were observed at 2.5-3. h (JWH-203) and 6-10. h (JWH-251) following ingestion. These metabolites were observed (GC-MS) for to 10 and 8 days (JWH-203 and JWH-251, respectively). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of analytical toxicology | Year: 2013

Studies on the pyrolysis of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist UR-144 ((1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone) have shown that its major pyrolysis product is a tetramethylcyclopropane ring-opened alkene. Considering that smoking is a common way of ingesting synthetic cannabimimetics, the presence of the metabolites of this pyrolysis product would be expected in biological fluids. Using GC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods, a series of phase I metabolites of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product were detected in the urine samples from patients admitted to hospital with suspected drug intoxication. The metabolites were tentatively identified as the products of mono-hydroxylation, di-hydroxylation, mono-hydroxylation with formation of the carbonyl group on the N-alkyl chain, carboxylation and N-dealkylation with mono-hydroxylation. In the case of the UR-144 pyrolysis product, metabolites with hydration of the aliphatic double bond were also identified. The parent compounds were detected as trace amounts in some urine samples, and the hydrated derivative of the UR-144 pyrolysis product was detected in the majority of samples. The detection of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of UR-144 (LC-MS-MS) and mono-hydroxylated/with hydration metabolites of the UR-144 pyrolysis product (GC-MS) was found to be the most useful method of establishing UR-144 ingestion.


PubMed | Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertises
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences | Year: 2011

Prohibition of some synthetic cannabimimetics (e.g., JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497) in a number of countries has led to a rise in new compounds in herbal mixtures that create marijuana-like psychotropic effects when smoked. The cannabimimetic JWH-250 (1-pentyl-3-(2-methoxyphenylacetyl)indole) was identified in May 2009 by the German Federal Criminal Police as an new ingredient in herbal smoking mixtures. The absence or low presence of the native compound in urine samples collected from persons who had consumed JWH-250 necessitates a detailed identification of their metabolites, which are excreted with urine and present in blood. Using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and LC-MS/MS), we identified a series of metabolites in urine samples and serum sample from humans and urine samples from rats that were products of the following reactions: (a) mono- and dihydroxylation of aromatic and aliphatic residues of the parent compound, (b) trihydroxylation and dehydration of the N-alkyl chain, (c) N-dealkylation and (d) N-dealkylation and monohydroxylation. The prevailing urinary metabolites in humans were the monohydroxylated forms, while N-dealkylated and N-dealkyl monohydroxylated forms were found in rats. The detection of the mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites of JWH-250 in urine and serum samples by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS proved to be effective in determining consumption of this drug.


Grigoryev A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise's | Kavanagh P.,Trinity College Dublin | Pechnikov A.,Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise's
Forensic Toxicology | Year: 2016

A number of metabolites of a new synthetic cannabimimetic, which is a derivative of 2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid, were identified in human urine. The parent compound, a methyl ester of this acid, was identified in seizures in persons from the same city where analysis of drug-intoxication urine samples revealed the presence of the compound’s metabolites. This compound named ‘MDMB-CHMICA’ was reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) via the Early Warning System (EWS) in 2014. Hydrolysis of the ester was found to be the main metabolic pathway followed by mono-, di- and tri-hydroxylation, ketone formation, ketone formation with monohydroxylation, dealkylation, and dealkylation combined with hydroxylation. Additionally, the products by internal dehydration of hydroxylated forms with lactone formation were detected. Mono-hydroxylated metabolites were detected from their glucuronidated forms. Identification of metabolites was made on the basis of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ion trap mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the metabolites of MBDB-CHMICA in human urine. © 2016 Japanese Association of Forensic Toxicology and Springer Japan

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