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Sarmiento K.P.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Ventolero M.F.H.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Ramiscal R.V.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Santos M.D.,National Fisheries Research and Development Institute
Marine Biodiversity Records | Year: 2016

Background: Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) spawning adults, juveniles and larvae are all reported to occur in areas between Philippine Sea and Japan Sea. However, no DNA evidence has been generated to support this. Context and purpose of the study: In this study, Pacific bluefin tuna caught North of Polilio Island in the Philippine Pacific Seaboard, was identified through DNA barcoding using mitochondrial DNA D-loop region and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene. Findings: The results show clustering of Philippine-caught bluefin tuna D-loop and CO1 sequences with published reference sequences for T. orientalis and supported by pairwise distances <0.034. Conclusion: This study provides the first DNA evidence on the occurrence of T. orientalis in Philippine waters. © 2016 The Author(s).

Romero M.L.J.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Kotaki Y.,Kitasato University | Lundholm N.,The Natural History Museum of Denmark | Thoha H.,Indonesian Institute of Sciences | And 9 more authors.
Harmful Algae | Year: 2011

Nitzschia navis-varingica is a diatom that is known to produce significant levels of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins. A total of 33 N. navis-varingica strains were isolated from four brackish water localities in the Philippines and Indonesia, and cultured to characterize the toxins produced. The isolates were analyzed for domoic acid (DA) and isodomoic acids A (IA) and B (IB) by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Two toxin composition types were detected that have not been previously described: strains producing only IB and strains producing DA-IA-IB. These two types were isolated from two different localities. Eighteen strains were isolated from the Philippines (northern Luzon Island). Among them, 10 isolates from Alaminos produced only IB with an average toxin content of 3.05pgcell-1, seven isolates from Bulacan produced DA and IB with average toxin contents of 0.68pgcell-1 and 1.18pgcell-1, respectively. One isolate from Cavite produced DA, IA, and IB with a toxin content of 0.58, 0.20, and 0.92pgcell-1, respectively. Fifteen isolates from Indonesia (Bone, South Sulawesi) produced only DA (four isolates) or DA with trace amounts of IB (eleven isolates), with an average toxin content of 2.38pgcell-1 and 0.06pgcell-1, respectively. Sub-strains were established from strains producing either of the three toxin types: IB, DA-IA-IB, and DA-trace IB. Results showed that the toxin composition type was the same for parent and sub-strains, indicating that the toxin composition is a stable character for a strain. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kotaki Y.,Kitasato University | Relox J.R.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Romero M.L.J.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Terada R.,Kagoshima University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Naturally produced brominated phenoxyphenols (OH-PBDEs) and phenoxyanisoles (MeO-PBDEs) were analyzed in aquatic plants (16 genera of green, brown, and red algae and angiosperms) collected from Luzon Island, the Philippines. Two brominated phenoxyphenols, 2′-hydroxy-2,3′,4,5′- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-OH-BDE68) and 6-hydroxy-2,2′,4, 4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), were detected in the phenolic fraction of extracts from most of the specimens; Sargassum oligosystum had the highest concentrations (101 ng/g fresh weight (fw)). The corresponding phenoxyanisole, 2′-methoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-MeO-BDE68), was most abundant in Sargassum aff. bataanense (229 ng/g fw), followed by Padina sp., and 6-methoxy-2,2′,4,4′- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE47) was predominant in Jania adhaerens (29 ng/g fw). Hydroxy-pentaBDEs, hydroxy-methoxy-tetraBDEs, dihydroxy-tetraBDEs, dihydroxy-tetrabromobiphenyl, and hydroxy-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxins were also detected. The present study demonstrates that these aquatic plant species could be an abundant source of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs found in higher trophic organisms in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Fishermen in Japan where in for a nasty surprise when they caught a frightful-looking 5-meter-long (16.4-foot-long) megamouth shark in their fishing nets. This exceedingly rare creature was caught off the coast of central Japan, around 5 kilometers (approximately 3 miles) from the Owase Port in Mie Prefecture. Featured with an enormous head and rubbery lips, the perfectly named shark swims with its "megamouth" wide open, filtering the waters to catch plankton, jellyfish, krill and shrimp, among other seafood. The megamouth shark was first discovered in 1976 off the coast of Hawaii, after which only 60 sightings of the rare sea creature had been confirmed. These sharks swim at a depth of around 120-160 meters (394-525 feet) during the day, but at night they rise up higher to feed, and swim about in a mere 12-25 meters (39-82 feet) of water. The megamouth shark is an extremely rare species of the deepwater shark and is usually found near Japan, the Philippines and Taiwan. As humongous as it is, it is still the smallest of the three plankton-eating sharks besides the whale shark and basking shark. In 2014, another megamouth shark was caught in Japan. More than 1,500 people out of sheer curiosity and intrigue gathered to watch scientists perform a public autopsy on the rare creature at the Marine Science Museum in Shizuoka City. The following year, a 15-foot-long megamouth was found dead by the residents of Marigondon in Pio Duran in the Philippines. Nonie Enolva of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources-Regional Emergency Stranding Response Team said that the shark's death had not been determined. Enolva noted that the shark's tail was missing and that it had wounds on its body, and said that the shark may have died by getting ensnared in a fishing net or consuming some poisonous organisms underwater. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Aewsiri T.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Visessanguan W.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Encarnacion A.B.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of various fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios was characterized and determined for emulsifying property. Fatty acid esters were incorporated into gelatin as indicated by the decrease in free amino group content. Gelatin modified with fatty acid ester had the increased surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying property with coincidental decrease in surface tension. Gelatin modified with fatty acid ester of C14:0 showed the highest surface activity, especially with the high degree of modification. Emulsion stabilized by gelatin modified with fatty acid ester of C14:0 had a smaller mean particle diameter with higher stability, compared with that stabilized by the control gelatin (without modification). Emulsion stabilized by modified gelatin remained stable at various pH (3-8) and salt concentrations (NaCl 0-500 mM). Emulsion was also stable after being heated at 50-90 °C for 30 min. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Lertwittayanon K.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Maqsood S.,United Arab Emirates University | Encarnacion A.B.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
International Aquatic Research | Year: 2013

Washing is an important process for surimi production, in which undesirable components in fish mince are removed, while myofibrillar proteins are concentrated. However, dewatering is less effective for some fish species. The use of appropriate salt can be a means to increase dewatering and simultaneously improve the gelling property of surimi. The impact of 0.45% NaCl containing CaCl2 or MgCl2 at various levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mM) as the third washing media on dewatering of washed mince and gel-forming ability of surimi produced from yellowtail barracuda (Sphyraena flavicauda) was investigated. When CaCl2 or MgCl2 was incorporated into the washing media, the contents of Ca or Mg ions in washed mince increased (p < 0.05), whereas the pH of washed mince slightly decreased (p < 0.05). At the same concentration, a higher dewatering of mince was observed when CaCl2 was used, compared with MgCl2 (p < 0.05). Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the stability of myosin decreased when higher concentrations of both salts were used (p < 0.05), while no difference in the stability of actin was obtained. Washing mince with 0.45% NaCl containing 20 mM MgCl2 yielded increases in breaking force of the gel of resulting surimi for both one-step and two-step heating processes by 46% and 33%, respectively, compared with the control (without CaCl2 or MgCl2 incorporation in washing media). The whiteness of the gel slightly decreased when the mince was washed with MgCl2 (p < 0.05). Microstructure revealed that a gel possessing a fine network with improved water-holding capacity was formed when the third media containing 0.45% NaCl and 20 mM MgCl2 was used. The use of 0.45% NaCl containing 20 mM MgCl2 was recommended to increase dewatering efficacy and improve gel strength of surimi from yellowtail barracuda by rendering a fine and ordered gel network. © 2013, Lertwittayanon et al.; licensee Springer.

Han Y.-S.,National Taiwan University | Lin Y.-F.,National Taiwan Normal University | Wu C.-R.,National Taiwan Normal University | Iizuka Y.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2016

Anguilla luzonensis, a recently identified tropical Anguilla species, was categorized as 'Near Threatened' in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List in 2014. However, its biogeographic distribution and dispersal mechanism remain unconfirmed. This study aimed to clarify the biotic and abiotic factors that may shape the eel's dispersal range, which could help to establish suitable conservation strategies. Glass eel distribution was investigated in Taiwan, Luzon, Mindanao, and Sulawesi. A. marmorata was used as a reference eel species for comparison. Although both species were found year-round, A. marmorata was found in all locations and was abundant at most sites. However, A. luzonensis was concentrated only on Luzon Island, mainly between June and October. It was rarely observed in Taiwan and Mindanao, and was not found in Sulawesi. The spawning site of A. luzonensis is probably located more northward in the North Equatorial Current (NEC), whereby the eel larvae avoid entering the Mindanao Current (MC). In addition, A. luzonensis typically spawns between February and May, and is preferentially transported into the Kuroshio from May to August, when the NEC bifurcation latitude reaches its southernmost position and the Kuroshio transport volume peaks. Furthermore, A. luzonensis has a shorter/narrower range of larval duration than A. marmorata, and its dispersal distance is therefore restricted. The life history traits of A. luzonensis, together with the oceanic current regime, may act together to concentrate its biogeographic distribution on Luzon Island. © 2016 Inter-Research.

Somga J.R.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | De La Pena L.D.,Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center | Sombito C.D.,Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center | Paner M.G.,Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center | And 4 more authors.
Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists | Year: 2010

Illegally imported koi carp were confiscated at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), Manila, Philippines by the Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Service Officers of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). The confiscated fish were turned over to the BFAR Fish Health Laboratory where they were held for observation at a water temperature of 28°C. After 5 days, some fish were showing abnormal swimming behavior and some had died. The most prominent disease signs in the freshly dead and moribund fish were body ulcerations and pale gills showing white necrotic patches, consistent with the clinical signs of KHV infection. Gills were dissected and fixed in 95% ethanol. All of the samples tested positive for KHV in a 1-step PCR assay.

Aragones L.V.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Roque M.A.A.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Flores M.B.,Ocean Adventure | Encomienda R.P.,Ocean Adventure | And 6 more authors.
Aquatic Mammals | Year: 2010

A well-maintained marine mammal stranding database can be an invaluable tool in understanding not only strandings but also changes in the marine environment. This study aimed to examine the following aspects of marine mammal strandings in the Philippines: species composition, temporal (i.e., frequency of stranding per year and seasonality) and spatial (i.e., frequency of stranding per region and province) variation, proportions of alive or dead specimens, and stranding hotspots. In 2008, a systematic collection of data on strandings, including out-of-habitat incidents, resulted in an initial 12-year database-from 1998 to 2009. A total of 178 stranding events were recorded: 163 single, 10 mass, and 5 out-of-habitat strandings, with an average of 15 observed stranding events annually. Twenty-three of the 28 confirmed species of marine mammals in the Philippines were recorded to strand, including first-recorded specimens for the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), and Longman's beaked whale (Indopacetus pacificus). The top five most frequent species to strand included spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) (n = 26), short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) (n = 14), melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra) (n = 13), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) (n = 11), and common bottlenose dolphin (T. truncatus) (n = 10). Dugongs (Dugong dugon) stranded seven times since 2001. Strandings occurred throughout the year with frequency significantly peaking during the northeast (NE) monsoon (November to March) season. Overall, Regions III (Central Luzon) and VII (Central Visayas) had the highest number of strandings (both n = 27) followed by Regions I (Ilocos) (n = 22) and V (Bicol) (n = 18). The following provinces or local government units were considered hotspots based on high number of strandings observed at each area: Zambales, Cagayan, Zamboanga City, Negros Oriental, Bohol, Pangasinan, and Bataan. Sixty-five percent of all documented stranding events involved live (n = 116) animals. This high percentage might be linked to dynamite fishing (causing acoustic trauma), fisheries interactions, or biotoxins from harmful algal blooms coupled to their foodweb. These strandings in general validate the diverse marine mammal assemblage in the Philippines and reveal the various environmental threats with which they deal.

Ranada M.L.O.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Tabbada R.S.C.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Mendoza A.D.L.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Relox J.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Sombrito E.Z.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2015

The mussel Perna viridisis used in the Philippine saxitoxin monitoring program as an indicator organism for the presence of saxitoxin in shellfish in an effort to assess concentration beyond a level considered safe for public consumption. Saxitoxin bioaccumulates in mussels through ingestion of saxitoxin-producing algae Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum(Pbc). This study focuses on the relationship between mussel length and mussel toxicity in mussels exposed to a natural bloom of Pbc. Mussel toxicity was assessed weekly in a 134-day sampling period using Receptor Binding Assay (RBA). Smaller mussels are more toxic than larger mussels at low Pbc cell density (≈102 cells/L) and the reverse is true at higher Pbc cell density (≈5×103 cells/L). These results can be useful in developing strategies for the collection of mussel samples in a toxic algal bloom monitoring program. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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