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Aewsiri T.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Visessanguan W.,National Science and Technology Development Agency | Encarnacion A.B.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2013

Cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin modified with N-hydroxysuccinimide esters of various fatty acids including capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), and myristic acid (C14:0) at different molar ratios was characterized and determined for emulsifying property. Fatty acid esters were incorporated into gelatin as indicated by the decrease in free amino group content. Gelatin modified with fatty acid ester had the increased surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying property with coincidental decrease in surface tension. Gelatin modified with fatty acid ester of C14:0 showed the highest surface activity, especially with the high degree of modification. Emulsion stabilized by gelatin modified with fatty acid ester of C14:0 had a smaller mean particle diameter with higher stability, compared with that stabilized by the control gelatin (without modification). Emulsion stabilized by modified gelatin remained stable at various pH (3-8) and salt concentrations (NaCl 0-500 mM). Emulsion was also stable after being heated at 50-90 °C for 30 min. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Lertwittayanon K.,Prince of Songkla University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Maqsood S.,United Arab Emirates University | Encarnacion A.B.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
International Aquatic Research | Year: 2013

Washing is an important process for surimi production, in which undesirable components in fish mince are removed, while myofibrillar proteins are concentrated. However, dewatering is less effective for some fish species. The use of appropriate salt can be a means to increase dewatering and simultaneously improve the gelling property of surimi. The impact of 0.45% NaCl containing CaCl2 or MgCl2 at various levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mM) as the third washing media on dewatering of washed mince and gel-forming ability of surimi produced from yellowtail barracuda (Sphyraena flavicauda) was investigated. When CaCl2 or MgCl2 was incorporated into the washing media, the contents of Ca or Mg ions in washed mince increased (p < 0.05), whereas the pH of washed mince slightly decreased (p < 0.05). At the same concentration, a higher dewatering of mince was observed when CaCl2 was used, compared with MgCl2 (p < 0.05). Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the stability of myosin decreased when higher concentrations of both salts were used (p < 0.05), while no difference in the stability of actin was obtained. Washing mince with 0.45% NaCl containing 20 mM MgCl2 yielded increases in breaking force of the gel of resulting surimi for both one-step and two-step heating processes by 46% and 33%, respectively, compared with the control (without CaCl2 or MgCl2 incorporation in washing media). The whiteness of the gel slightly decreased when the mince was washed with MgCl2 (p < 0.05). Microstructure revealed that a gel possessing a fine network with improved water-holding capacity was formed when the third media containing 0.45% NaCl and 20 mM MgCl2 was used. The use of 0.45% NaCl containing 20 mM MgCl2 was recommended to increase dewatering efficacy and improve gel strength of surimi from yellowtail barracuda by rendering a fine and ordered gel network. © 2013, Lertwittayanon et al.; licensee Springer.

Ranada M.L.O.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Tabbada R.S.C.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Mendoza A.D.L.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute | Relox J.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Sombrito E.Z.,Philippine Nuclear Research Institute
Regional Studies in Marine Science | Year: 2015

The mussel Perna viridisis used in the Philippine saxitoxin monitoring program as an indicator organism for the presence of saxitoxin in shellfish in an effort to assess concentration beyond a level considered safe for public consumption. Saxitoxin bioaccumulates in mussels through ingestion of saxitoxin-producing algae Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum(Pbc). This study focuses on the relationship between mussel length and mussel toxicity in mussels exposed to a natural bloom of Pbc. Mussel toxicity was assessed weekly in a 134-day sampling period using Receptor Binding Assay (RBA). Smaller mussels are more toxic than larger mussels at low Pbc cell density (≈102 cells/L) and the reverse is true at higher Pbc cell density (≈5×103 cells/L). These results can be useful in developing strategies for the collection of mussel samples in a toxic algal bloom monitoring program. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Fishermen in Japan where in for a nasty surprise when they caught a frightful-looking 5-meter-long (16.4-foot-long) megamouth shark in their fishing nets. This exceedingly rare creature was caught off the coast of central Japan, around 5 kilometers (approximately 3 miles) from the Owase Port in Mie Prefecture. Featured with an enormous head and rubbery lips, the perfectly named shark swims with its "megamouth" wide open, filtering the waters to catch plankton, jellyfish, krill and shrimp, among other seafood. The megamouth shark was first discovered in 1976 off the coast of Hawaii, after which only 60 sightings of the rare sea creature had been confirmed. These sharks swim at a depth of around 120-160 meters (394-525 feet) during the day, but at night they rise up higher to feed, and swim about in a mere 12-25 meters (39-82 feet) of water. The megamouth shark is an extremely rare species of the deepwater shark and is usually found near Japan, the Philippines and Taiwan. As humongous as it is, it is still the smallest of the three plankton-eating sharks besides the whale shark and basking shark. In 2014, another megamouth shark was caught in Japan. More than 1,500 people out of sheer curiosity and intrigue gathered to watch scientists perform a public autopsy on the rare creature at the Marine Science Museum in Shizuoka City. The following year, a 15-foot-long megamouth was found dead by the residents of Marigondon in Pio Duran in the Philippines. Nonie Enolva of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources-Regional Emergency Stranding Response Team said that the shark's death had not been determined. Enolva noted that the shark's tail was missing and that it had wounds on its body, and said that the shark may have died by getting ensnared in a fishing net or consuming some poisonous organisms underwater. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Kotaki Y.,Kitasato University | Relox J.R.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Romero M.L.J.,Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources | Terada R.,Kagoshima University
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Naturally produced brominated phenoxyphenols (OH-PBDEs) and phenoxyanisoles (MeO-PBDEs) were analyzed in aquatic plants (16 genera of green, brown, and red algae and angiosperms) collected from Luzon Island, the Philippines. Two brominated phenoxyphenols, 2′-hydroxy-2,3′,4,5′- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-OH-BDE68) and 6-hydroxy-2,2′,4, 4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), were detected in the phenolic fraction of extracts from most of the specimens; Sargassum oligosystum had the highest concentrations (101 ng/g fresh weight (fw)). The corresponding phenoxyanisole, 2′-methoxy-2,3′,4,5′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (2′-MeO-BDE68), was most abundant in Sargassum aff. bataanense (229 ng/g fw), followed by Padina sp., and 6-methoxy-2,2′,4,4′- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-MeO-BDE47) was predominant in Jania adhaerens (29 ng/g fw). Hydroxy-pentaBDEs, hydroxy-methoxy-tetraBDEs, dihydroxy-tetraBDEs, dihydroxy-tetrabromobiphenyl, and hydroxy-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxins were also detected. The present study demonstrates that these aquatic plant species could be an abundant source of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs found in higher trophic organisms in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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