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Khonmee J.,Chiang Mai University | Brown J.L.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Taya K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Rojanasthien S.,Chiang Mai University | And 7 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

To date, there is no information on gonadal steroidogenic activity of female goral (. Naemorhedus griseus), a threatened species of Thailand. Captive goral populations have been established to produce animals for ex situ conservation and reintroduction, but as yet none are self-sustaining. The objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the influence of season on ovarian steriodogenic function; and (2) examine the relationship between gonadal hormone excretion and sexual behaviors throughout the year. Fecal samples were collected 5 to 7days/wk for 15months from 8 adult females housed at Omkoi Wildlife Breeding Center in Thailand and analyzed for ovarian steroid metabolites using validated enzyme immunoassays. Observations of sexual behaviors and mating were conducted each morning for 30min/session. Based on fecal estrogen and progestagen metabolite concentrations, the overall estrous cycle length was about 21days, with a 2- to 3-day follicular phase and an 18- to 20-day luteal phase. Sexual behaviors, most notably tail-up, increased for 2 to 3days during the time estrogens were elevated during mating. Fecal progestagens were elevated during luteal phases and increased further during gestation, which lasted approximately 7months. The lactation period was 5months, and females were anestrus for 2 to 5 of those months, with the exception of one that cycled continuously throughout. Two females conceived around 2months postpartum and so were pregnant during lactation. Birth records over the past 21years indicated young are born throughout the year. This combined with the hormonal data suggests that female gorals are not strongly seasonal, at least in captivity, although there was considerable variation among females in estrogen and progestagen patterns. In conclusion, fecal steroid metabolite monitoring is an effective means of assessing ovarian function in this species and will be a useful tool for breeding management and planned development of assisted reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination and embryo transfer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Baicharoen S.,Kyoto University | Baicharoen S.,Bureau of Conservation Research and Education | Arsaithamkul V.,Bureau of Conservation Research and Education | Hirai Y.,Kyoto University | And 3 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2012

The siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), a species of the family Hylobatidae (gibbons), carries large blocks of constitutive heterochromatin in the telomere region of chromosomes. We recently found that alpha satellite DNA constitutes these heterochromatin blocks as a main component. Alpha satellite DNA, tandem repeat sequences of 171-bp repeat units, is a major component of centromeres in primates. In addition to the siamang, the white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) was previously found to carry the alpha satellite DNA in the telomere region, although not as large a scale as the siamang. Gibbons comprise four genera: Hoolock, Hylobates, Nomascus, and Symphalangus. Here, we report that the amplification of alpha satellite DNA in the telomere region is probably confined to two genera: Nomascus and Symphalangus. We examined one species of Hoolock and four species of Hylobates and obtained evidence against such an amplification event in these species. The phylogenetic relationship of the four gibbon genera remains unclear. One simple explanation for the current distribution of the telomere region alpha satellite DNA would be that Nomascus and Symphalangus are relatively closely related and the amplification occurred in their common ancestor. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press.

Akihiko K.,Kyoto University | Yuriko H.,Kyoto University | Shoko T.,Kyoto University | Israt J.,Kyoto University | And 3 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2014

Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is a main DNA component of primate centromeres, consisting of tandemly repeated units of ∼170 bp. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, in which a block of multiple repeat units forms a larger repeat unit and the larger units are repeated tandemly. The presence of HOR in AS is widely thought to be unique to hominids (family Hominidae; humans and great apes). Recently, we have identified an HOR-containing AS in the siamang, which is a small ape species belonging to the genus Symphalangus in the family Hylobatidae. This result supports the view that HOR in AS is an attribute of hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea) rather than hominids. A single example is, however, not sufficient for discussion of the evolutionary origin of HOR-containing AS. In the present study, we developed an efficient method for detecting signs of large-scale HOR and demonstrated HOR of AS in all the three other genera. Thus, AS organized into HOR occurs widely in hominoids. Our results indicate that (i) HOR-containing AS was present in the last common ancestor of hominoids or (ii) HOR-containing AS emerged independently in most or all basal branches of hominoids. We have also confirmed HOR occurrence in centromeric AS in the Hylobatidae family, which remained unclear in our previous study because of the existence of AS in subtelomeric regions, in addition to centromeres, of siamang chromosomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

Muangkram Y.,Kasetsart University | Salakij C.,Kasetsart University | Siriaroonrut B.,Bureau of Conservation Research and Education | Tipkantha W.,Bureau of Conservation Research and Education | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2013

The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is classified as a preserved animal of Thailand. It is listed as an endangered species on the 2008 IUCN red list and also by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Blood samples from captive Malayan tapirs (n = 20, 10 males and 10 females) from five zoos under the Zoological Park Organization of Thailand were examined and measured for complete blood counts, serum chemistry and electrolyte analysis. Cytochemical staining including Peroxidase, Sudan Black B, Periodic acid Schiff's reaction (PAS), α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) and β-glucuronidase (BG) was also analysed. Statistically significant differences were found between sexes including alkaline phosphatase, total protein and red cell distribution widths. Red blood cells were slightly anisocytosis, (range 4.5-8.5 μm) with 6.3-μm mean diameter. Eosinophils and monocytes were positive with all five cytochemical stains. Lymphocytes showed a variable reaction for ANAE and BG. PAS was positive for all type of blood cells except red blood cells. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils had the largest round shape with three-capsule layer granules which were prominent and distinguishable from other species. This investigation provides basic haematology and serum chemistry analyses as well blood cells identification guideline for the Malayan tapir and serves as endangered mammal reference values. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.

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