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New York City, NY, United States

Parton H.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | Driver C.,Bureau of Epidemiology Services | Norman C.,Bureau of Mental Health
PLoS Currents | Year: 2016

Introduction: In anticipation of Hurricane Sandy in 2012 New York City officials issued mandatory evacuation orders for evacuation Zone A. However, only a small proportion of residents complied. Failure to comply with evacuation warnings can result in severe consequences including injury and death. To better ascertain why individuals failed to heed pre­-emptive evacuation warnings for Hurricane Sandy we assessed factors that may have affected evacuation among residents in neighborhoods severely affected by the storm. Methods: Data from a mental health needs assessment survey conducted among adult residents in South Brooklyn, the Rockaways, and Staten Island from December 13-18, 2012 was assessed. Several disasters related questions were evaluated, and prevalence estimates of evacuation and evacuation timing by potential factors that may influence evacuation were estimated. Measures of association were assessed using chi-square and t-test. Results: Our sample consisted of 420 residents of which, only 49% evacuated at any time for Sandy. Evacuation was higher among those who witnessed trauma to others related to the World Trade Center attacks (66% vs. 40%, p=0.024). Those who reported extensive household damage after Sandy, had a higher rate of evacuation than those with minimal damage (83% vs. 30%, p<0.001). Among those who evacuated, evacuation before the storm was lower among residents living on higher floors (56% vs. 22%, p=0.022). Discussion: Given that warnings to evacuate were issued before Sandy made landfall, evacuation among residents in South Brooklyn, the Rockaways and Staten Island, while higher than the overall Zone A evacuation rate, was less than optimal. Continued research on evacuation behaviors is needed, particularly on how timing affects evacuation. A better understanding may help to reduce barriers, and improve evacuation compliance. © 2016 Public Library of Science. All rights reserved.

Farr A.M.,Thomson Reuters | Aden B.,New York Medical College | Weiss D.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | Nash D.,York College | Marx M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2012

objective. To describe trends in hospitalizations with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection in New York City over 10 years and to explore the demographics and comorbidities of patients hospitalized with CA-MRSA infections. design. Retrospective analysis of hospital discharges from New York State's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative Systemdatabase from 1997 to 2006. patients. All patients greater than 1 year of age admitted to New York hospitals with diagnosis codes indicating MRSA who met the criteria for CA-MRSA on the basis of admission information and comorbidities. methods. We determined hospitalization rates and compared demographics and comorbidities of patients hospitalized with CA-MRSA versus those hospitalized with all other non-MRSA diagnoses by multivariable logistic regression. results. Of 18,226 hospitalizations with an MRSA diagnosis over 10 years, 3,579 (20%) were classified as community-associated. The CA-MRSA hospitalization rate increased from 1.47 to 10.65 per 100,000 people overall from 1997 to 2006. Relative to non-MRSA hospitalizations, men, children, Bronx and Manhattan residents, the homeless, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and persons with diabetes had higher adjusted odds of CA-MRSA hospitalization. conclusions. The CA-MRSA hospitalization rate appeared to increase between 1997 and 2006 in New York City, with residents of the Bronx and Manhattan, men, and persons with HIV infection or diabetes at increased odds of hospitalization with CA-MRSA. Further studies are needed to explore how changes in MRSA incidence, access to care, and other factors may have impacted these rates. © 2012 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

Minen M.T.,Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center | Duquaine D.,Antibiotic Resistance Unit | Marx M.A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Weiss D.,Bureau of Communicable Disease
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2010

Physicians who are insufficiently prepared to make choices on antibiotic selection may use antibiotics inappropriately. We surveyed medical students' perceptions and attitudes about their training on antimicrobial use to identify gaps in medical education. Medical students at an urban medical school in the northeast were e-mailed a link to an online survey. The survey was online for 1 week, after which time the survey responses were downloaded and analyzed. Thirty percent of medical students responded to the survey (n = 304). The majority of third- and fourth-year medical students believe that antibiotics are overused in the hospital and in outpatient areas. Over three quarters of the students would like more education on antibiotic selection, and 83% wanted this education to be during the third year of medical school. The resources they used the most for antibiotic selection included other physicians and handheld programs such as Epocrates, but no clear resource emerged as the dominant preference. Medical students recognized the importance of judicious antibiotic use and would like greater instruction on how to choose antibiotics appropriately. Medical school curricula should be expanded in the third year of medical school to provide students with additional training timed with their clinical rotations. © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.

Cokes C.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | France A.M.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | France A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Reddy V.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | And 5 more authors.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives. Prepared ready-to-eat salads and ready-to-eat delicatessen-style meats present a high risk for Listeria contamination. Because no foodborne illness risk management guidelines exist specifically for US hospitals, a survey of New York City (NYC) hospitals was conducted to characterize policies and practices after a listeriosis outbreak occurred in a NYC hospital. Methods. From August through October 2008, a listeriosis outbreak in a NYC hospital was investigated. From February through April 2009, NYC's 61 acute-care hospitals were asked to participate in a telephone survey regarding food safety practices and policies, specifically service of high-risk foods to patients at increased risk for listeriosis. Results. Five patients with medical conditions that put them at high risk for listeriosis had laboratory-confirmed Listeria monocytogenes infection. The Listeria outbreak strain was isolated from tuna salad prepared in the hospital. Fifty-four (89%) of 61 hospitals responded to the survey. Overall, 81% of respondents reported serving ready-to-eat deli meats to patients, and 100% reported serving prepared ready-to-eat salads. Pregnant women, patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and patients undergoing chemotherapy were served ready-to-eat deli meats at 77%, 59%, and 49% of hospitals, respectively, and were served prepared ready-to-eat salads at 94%, 89%, and 73% of hospitals, respectively. Only 4 (25%) of 16 respondents reported having a policy that ready-to-eat deli meats must be heated until steaming hot before serving. Conclusions. Despite the potential for severe outcomes of Listeria infection among hospitalized patients, the majority of NYC hospitals had no food preparation policies to minimize risk. Hospitals should implement policies to avoid serving high-risk foods to patients at risk for listeriosis. © 2011 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

Greene S.K.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | Levin-Rector A.,Bureau of Communicable Disease | Hadler J.L.,Commissioners Office | Fine A.D.,Bureau of Communicable Disease
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Objectives. We described disparities in selected communicable disease incidence across area-based poverty levels in New York City, an area with more than 8 million residents and pronounced household income inequality. Methods. We geocoded and categorized cases of 53 communicable diseases diagnosed during 2006 to 2013 by census tract-based poverty level. Age-standardized incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated for areas with 30% or more versus fewer than 10% of residents below the federal poverty threshold. Results. Diseases associated with high poverty included rickettsialpox (IRR = 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.29, 5.95), chronic hepatitis C (IRR for new reports = 3.58; 95% CI = 3.50, 3.66), and malaria (IRR = 3.48; 95% CI = 2.97, 4.08). Diseases associated with low poverty included domestic tick-borne diseases acquired through travel to areas where infected vectors are prevalent, such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (IRR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.19) and Lyme disease (IRR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.36). Conclusions. Residents of high poverty areas were disproportionately affected by certain communicable diseases that are amenable to public health interventions. Future work should clarify subgroups at highest risk, identify reasons for the observed associations, and use findings to support programs to minimize disparities.

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