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Farley S.M.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Johns M.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control
Tobacco Control | Year: 2016

Introduction The availability of flavoured tobacco products is associated with increased initiation and youth smoking. New York City prohibited all sales of flavoured cigars, cigarillos, little cigars, chew, snuff, snus, tobacco, pipe tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, and dissolvables, excluding menthol, in October 2009; enforcement began in November 2010. This paper describes the sales ban evaluation. Methods Data on retail tobacco sales of cigars, smokeless and other tobacco products such as pipe tobacco and roll-your-own, were analysed using interrupted time series methods, estimating changes in flavoured and non-flavoured tobacco product inflationadjusted dollar sales overall, and by product type. Changes in ever use of flavoured tobacco products, any tobacco product use, and smoking prevalence among adolescents were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Sales of flavoured tobacco products declined overall (87%; p<0.001), and for flavoured cigars (86%; p<0.001) and flavoured pipe and roll-your-own (91%; p<0.001) following ban enforcement, while non-flavoured sales increased for cigars (5%; p=0.003) and pipe and roll-your-own (4%, p=0.030). In adjusted models, teens in 2013 had 37% lower odds of ever trying flavoured tobacco products (p<0.001), 28% lower odds of using any type of tobacco product ( p=0.025), and a non-significant change in current smoking prevalence (p=0.114) compared with teens in 2010. Conclusions Flavoured tobacco product sales and odds of ever using flavoured tobacco products or using any tobacco products among teens declined significantly after ban enforcement began. Collectively these findings demonstrate significant evidence that the flavoured tobacco products sales ban was successful in New York City, and could succeed elsewhere. © 2016 by the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Source


Yi S.S.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Yi S.S.,New York University | Firestone M.J.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Beasley J.M.,Yeshiva University
Obesity | Year: 2014

Objective Observational studies highlight a possible relationship between sodium intake and obesity. This investigation explores the cross-sectional relationships between sodium intake and measures of body size and fatness (body mass index [BMI], weight, waist circumference, predictive body fatness). Methods Analyses were performed using data from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-10 with two 24-h dietary recalls and measures of body size and fatness (n = 4,613). Regression analyses assessed the relationships of sodium (1,000 mg/day) with outcomes, adjusting for caloric intake. Analyses are presented overall and by sex; data were weighted to be representative of the non-institutionalized US adult population. Results Positive associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and predictive body fatness were observed, and the magnitude of association was larger in women than in men. For each 1,000 mg/day higher sodium intake, BMI was 1.03 kg/m2 higher; weight was 2.75 kg higher; waist circumference was 2.15 cm higher; and predictive body fatness was 1.18% higher after adjustment for energy intake. Conclusions Longitudinal analyses examining associations between sodium intake and measures of body size and body fatness are needed. © 2014 The Obesity Society. Source


Baronberg S.,Food Access and Community Health Programs | Dunn L.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Nonas C.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Dannefer R.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2013

Introduction: Increasing the accessibility and affordability of fresh produce is an important strategy for municipalities combatting obesity and related health conditions. Farmers markets offer a promising venue for intervention in urban settings, and in recent years, an increasing number of programs have provided financial incentives to Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients. However, few studies have explored the impact o f these programs on use of SNAP benefits at farmers markets. Methods: New York City's Health Bucks Program provides SNAP recipients with a $2 coupon for every $5 spent using SNAP benefits at participating farmers markets. We analyzed approximately 4 years of electronic benefit transfer (EBT) sales data, from July 2006 through November 2009, to develop a preliminary assessment o f the effect of the Health Bucks Program on EBT spending at participating markets. Results: Farmers markets that offered Health Bucks coupons to SNAP recipients averaged higher daily EBT sales than markets without the incentive ($383.07, 95% confidence interval [CI], 333.1-433.1, vs $273.97, 95% CI, 243.4-304.5, P < 0.001) following the introduction of a direct point-of-purchase incentive. Multivariate analysis indicated this difference remained after adjusting for the year the market was held and the neighborhood poverty level. Conclusion: When a $2 financial incentive was distributed with EBT, use of SNAP benefits increased at participating New York City farmers markets. We encourage other urban jurisdictions to consider adapting the Health Bucks Program to encourage low-income shoppers to purchase fresh produce as one potential strategy in a comprehensive approach to increasing healthful food access and affordability in low-income neighborhoods. Source


Johns M.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Sacks R.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Rane M.,Johns Hopkins University | Kansagra S.M.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2013

This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposureinitiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR=1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR=1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking. © 2013 The New York Academy of Medicine (outside the USA). Source


Yi S.S.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control | Kansagra S.M.,Bureau of Chronic Disease Prevention and Tobacco Control
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2014

Sodium intake has historically been studied as a precursor to cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, particularly in relation to blood pressure and development of hypertension. Recent observational studies highlight a possible relationship between sodium and obesity independent of higher caloric intake. This research letter explores the relationship between sodium intake measured in 24-hour urine samples and measures of body size such as obesity, BMI, weight, and waist circumference using proxy adjustments for unavailable energy intake data. Results indicated an association between sodium intake and measures of body size, with potentially different and meaningful patterns by gender. These and other findings point to a need for more rigorous evaluation of the association between sodium intake and measures of body size to fully understand the potential effects of reducing sodium intake beyond traditional cardiovascular disease markers and endpoints. © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source

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