Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine

Taipei, Taiwan

Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine

Taipei, Taiwan
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Lai M.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Lai M.-C.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Teng T.-H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Yang C.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2013

Free fatty acids play an important role in regulating animal insulin secretion response. Acute elevated free fatty acids increased animal insulin secretion and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the present study, we perfused the rat pancreas to explore the effect of unsaturated fatty acids on insulin secretion. The results showed that linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid significantly stimulated insulin secretion. Glucose (10 mM) alone induced a biphasic insulin secretion response. The peak effluent insulin concentrations increased by 444% and 800% compared with the baseline in the first and second insulin secretion phases, respectively. Based on comparison of the percentage increases, arachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid or linoleic acid increased glucose-induced insulin release by 555% and 934%, 522% and 995% and 463% and 1,105% in the first and second insulin secretion phases, respectively. However, the percentage increases of insulin secretion decreased significantly to 402% and 564% in the first and second phases in the rats fed a high-fat diet for 13 weeks. Linoleic acid alone stimulated a 391% increase in the peak insulin concentration compared with the baseline in the rats fed a normal diet. The peak insulin concentration decreased significantly to183% in the rats fed a long-term high-fat diet. All the results suggested that unsaturated fatty acids stimulated insulin secretion and additively increased glucose-induced insulin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. However, the rats fed a high-fat diet had a decreased linoleic acid-induced insulin secretion response. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.

Huang K.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang K.-S.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Tai C.-H.,National Chung Hsing University | Cheng Y.-H.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2017

Pepper chlorotic spot virus (PCSV), newly found in Taiwan, was identified as a new tospovirus based on the molecular characterization of its S RNA. In this study, the complete M and L RNA sequences of PCSV were determined. The M RNA has 4795 nucleotides (nts), encoding the NSm protein of 311 aa (34.5 kDa) in the viral (v) strand and the glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc) of 1122 aa (127.6 kDa) in the viral complementary (vc) strand. The L RNA has 8859 nts, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 2873 aa (330.8 kDa) in the vc strand. Analyses of the NSm, Gn/Gc and RdRp of PCSV revealed that PCSV is phylogenetically clustered within the watermelon silver mottle virus-related clade. Based on the whole genome sequence, PCSV is closely related to Tomato necrotic ringspot virus and should be classified as a new tospovirus species. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Chan K.-W.,National Chiayi University | Hsu Y.-H.,National Chiayi University | Hu W.-L.,National Chiayi University | Pan M.-J.,Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2014

Taiwan is in the subtropical zone and has typhoons every year. Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Taiwan, and feline leptospirosis in Taiwan remains unknown so far. From January, 2010, to September, 2011, 233 cats in south Taiwan (159 stray cats and 74 household cats) were sampled in this research. Leptospira antibody titer was detected by the serology gold standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Both serum and urine were examined for Leptospira DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers. In this study, the serological survey showed 21 (9.3%) examined sera contained antibodies specific for pathogenic Leptospira serogroups. The results of PCR revealed that 25 (19.1%) serum and 80 (67.8%) urine samples were found positive for leptospiral DNA sequences. All products amplified from PCR reactions were sequenced by an automated method for further confirmation. This is the first study concerning the epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira in stray and household cats' urine, and the results demonstrate that some of the cats are susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira and have the potential to shed pathogenic Leptospira into the environment. This could be an issue of public health. © 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Endemic Species Research Institute, Council of Agriculture and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2016

Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961. In 2013, Taiwan confirmed the detection of rabies virus in wild Taiwan ferret-badgers. Up to December 2014, there have been 423 rabies-confirmed ferret-badgers and three cases of spillover infection into non-reservoir hosts. Genetic analysis indicates that TFBV is distinct from all other known rabies virus variants. To date, ferret-badger rabies is known to occur only in China and Taiwan. The temporal dynamics of rabid ferret-badgers in Taiwan suggests that the epizootic appears to have subsided to enzootic levels as of December 2014. According to the current epidemiologic data, there is only one TFBV strain in Taiwan. TFBV is still sequestered to the mountainous regions. Humans are at risk mainly through exposure to the virus from infected domestic meso-carnivores, mainly dogs and cats. Dogs and cats should be vaccinated to establish an immunological barrier to stop the spread of the disease from mountainous regions to domestic meso-carnivores.

Huang K.S.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Lee S.E.,Chang Gung University | Yeh Y.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Shen G.S.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | And 2 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2010

Western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major global pest of agricultural products. It directly damages crops through feeding, oviposition activity or transmission of several plant viruses. We describe a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR detection system, which can rapidly identify F. occidentalis from thrips larvae to complement the traditional morphological identification. The data showed that our detection system targeted on the ribosomal RNA gene regions of F. occidentalis has high sensitivity and specificity. The rapid method can be used for on-site testing of samples at ports-of-entry in the future. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Liao C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Wang T.-C.,The World Vegetable Center | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose on peppers (Capsicum spp.), resulting in severe yield losses in Taiwan. Fungal isolates Coll-153, Coll-365 and Coll-524 collected from diseased peppers were found to differ in pathogenicity. Pathogenicity assays on various index plants revealed that Coll-524 was highly virulent and Coll-153 was moderately virulent to three commercially available pepper cultivars. Both isolates induced anthracnose lesions and produced abundant conidia. Coll-365 was only weakly virulent on pepper fruit, where it caused small lesions and hardly produced conidia on pepper fruit. However, Coll-365 was highly pathogenic to tomato fruit and mango leaves, where it caused anthracnose lesions and formed acervuli and conidia. All three isolates showed similar abilities in the attachment and germination of conidia, formation of highly branched hyphae and appressoria, penetration of cuticles, and infection of epidermal cells on chili peppers. Coll-365 accumulated less turgor pressure in appressoria but produced higher levels of cutinase and protease activity than Coll-153 and Coll-524 did. All three isolates invaded the neighbouring cells through plasmodesmata in chili peppers and showed similar pectinase or cellulase activities in culture. However, the most virulent strain Coll-524 expressed stronger laccase activity and was more resistant to capsaicin compared to Coll-153 and Coll-365. The three isolates are different in numbers and sizes of double-stranded RNAs. Depending on the cultivar genotypes, cellular resistance of chili pepper to C. acutatum might rely on the ability to restrict penetration, colonization, or conidiation of the pathogen. We conclude that the differences in pathogenicity among the three C. acutatum isolates of pepper are attributed to their ability to colonize the host plant. © 2012 KNPV.

Hsu J.-C.,National Taiwan University | Huang L.-H.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Feng H.-T.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute | Feng H.-T.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Su W.-Y.,Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been an effective control of several tephritid pests. Recently, OP resistance has been observed in various fly species from different localities. However, in cases where resistance to an OP is exhibited in the field, evaluations of the efficiency of trapping with lures mixed with the same OP toxicants have not been carried out. To address this, the trapping and killing efficiency of lures with OP toxicants was assessed for flies from lines of Bactroceradorsalis exhibiting resistance and susceptibility to OP insecticides. Specifically, bioassays were conducted with males from susceptible, resistant, and revertant lines (derived by relaxation of selection in the resistant line). The trapping and killing efficiencies of traps containing concentrations of 5 or 2.5 % naled were assayed at different exposure times. For the susceptible line, the number of dead flies found inside and outside of the trap was significantly lower than that of the other two tested lines. The number of dead flies found outside was significantly lower for the 2.5 % naled concentration compared to that of the 5 % concentration. Additionally, an analysis of genotypes showed that in trapped males, the frequencies of alleles of the acetylcholinesterase gene associated with resistance were lower compared to males of the field population collected from the same localities. In conclusion, for cases where fly lines exhibit insecticide resistance, the use of toxicant lures laced with the same insecticides may severely impact trapping effectiveness and may result in further increases of the frequency of resistant genotypes in the population. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Liao C.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen M.-Y.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-K.,National Chung Hsing University | Kuo K.-C.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | And 2 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

This study showed that Colletotrichum acutatum penetrates the cuticle layer of Capsicum spp. fruits by forming a previously uncharacterized structure from appressoria. This unusual structure was localized in the cuticle layer. The structure, formed within 24h post-inoculation (hpi), was a highly branched, well-differentiated hypha which penetrated the epidermal cell at 72hpi. The novel structure, with abnormally thick walls (about 250nm), often formed multiple branches in the affected chilli pepper. This dendroid structure, probably required for penetration, was formed exclusively in the cuticle layer of chilli pepper fruits and was not found when C. acutatum was inoculated onto pepper petals, mango leaves, or fruits of tomato and aubergine. Colletotrichum acutatum produced similar dendroid structures within resistant chilli pepper fruits, but eventually these structures turned dark brown and no further infection in the epidermal cells occurred, implicating the presence of inhibitors of the formation and development of the dendroid penetration structure in the resistant line. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP.

Zhang R.-Z.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Tsai S.-S.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Chao H.-R.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Shieh Y.-C.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Chuang K.-P.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2016

Human spend a lot of time indoors and indoor air quality (IAQ) has a great effect on quality of life in humans. Traditionally, bioaerosol in IAQs is focused on bacteria and fungus. Airborne viruses, particularly for the nanoparticle-type virus, on the bioaerosol particulates are associated with the quality of human health in indoor environment. We establish the human like animal model, like pig, for testing the efficacy of the nano virus like particle (VLP) vaccine for aerosol relative disease. The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which is an airborne and a droplet infection virus coated on the small size of bioaerosol, carries a major infectious disease in the pig raising industry worldwide. There are commercial vaccines including attenuated and inactivated vaccines available, but their efficacy remains to be improved. VLP represents safe and effective vaccine platforms based on nano-technology. The fusion protein of capsid protein (Cap) from the porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and the glycoprotein 5 (GP5) from PRRSV were expressed by E. coli system. The fusion protein self-assembled with the GP5 to become a VLP nanoparticle. For testing, BALB/c mice were immunized with 10 µg of chimeric VLP nanoparticle once, which induced neutralization by antibody responses to PRRSV. The VLP nanoparticle vaccine induced high T cell proliferation, not evident in commercial vaccines tested on mice. Our results suggest that the cheaper VLP–based nanoparticle is a possibly viable approach model for specific airborne-relative-diseases human vaccine in the future. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.

Huang T.-P.,National Chung Hsing University | Yeh Y.,Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine | Tzeng D.D.-S.,National Chung Hsing University
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Colletotrichum spp. are casual agents of anthracnose on various economically important crops. To cope with the pitfalls of identifying the fungi by morphotaxonomic criteria, the application of heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions as a biochemical tool was explored. The ITS regions of 29 Colletotrichum isolates including Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum graminicola, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum dematium, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and three unidentified species of Colletotrichum, were PCR amplified. Comparison of the ITS sequences from 15 Colletotrichum isolates revealed a greater DNA divergence within ITS1 region than that within ITS2. The DNA distance and sequence identity within intra-species ranged from 0.0 to 1.1% and from 98.9 to 100%, respectively; whereas those within inter-species ranged from 1.46 to 13.43% and 90.02 to 98.56%, respectively. From the correlation of DNA distance and relative heteroduplex mobility observed among 15 reference isolates, a formula for estimation of distances of a tested DNA sequence was developed for estimation of DNA distances of a compared strain. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions of 29 Colletotrichum isolates using DNA distance inferred from relative heteroduplex mobility divided them into 5 distinctive species groups, namely CG, CA, CC, CM and CL, similar to that assembled based on DNA sequences analysis. Our results show that HMA of ITS regions is a relatively rapid and convenient method for species-specific identification of Colletotrichum spp. The potential use of the established techniques for identification of anthracnose and even other fungal diseases are discussed. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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