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Woziwoda B.,University of Lodz | Potocki M.,Bureau for Forest Management and Geodesy | Sagan J.,Grochowska 278 | Michal Z.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2014

The paper presents the history of Quercus rubra L. introduction and current distribution in the state forests of Poland. We followed the extent of Q. rubra planting on a spatial and temporal scale, based on data obtained from the Information System of the Polish State Forests (SILP) as of 2011. The current distribution of Northern Red oak, the characteristics of Q. rubra stands, the purposes of cultivation, the type of occupied forest habitat and differences of tree age were also analysed. Q. rubra has been deliberately introduced to Poland as a commercially important tree since the beginning of the 19th century. During two hundred year period, the area of its intentional cultivation has been successively increased. In the second part of the 20th century, the scale and the rate of its planting have significantly accelerated. At present, Q. rubra occurs in the whole country and occupies 14.3 thousand ha of the state forests, including 10.5 thousand ha of timber plantations. Within the remaining area, Q. rubra was planted as an admixture woody species. Despite the relatively small proportion of area with planted Q. rubra in the total forest area (just 0.16%), red oak seems to occur commonly, mainly due to the very high number (over 80 thousand) localities through which it is spatially dispersed. It is planted in a wide range of forest soils: from dry and poor areas that are suitable for coniferous forest, to soils that are flooded and rich in nutrients and naturally overgrown by deciduous forests. The biggest area of its plantation, however, is located in mixed deciduous forests (with moisture and medium-rich soils). It is commonly used in forest restoration of post-industrial (e.g. post-mine) soils as well as in the afforestation of abandoned or poor post-agricultural lands. Currently, most of the stands are too young for logging, so the commercial significance of Q. rubra wood in the timber market is still low, but it is considered one of the most commercially important trees of alien origin in Poland. The long lasting (200 years) and widespread cultivation of Q. rubra in European forests, however, in combination with the noted abundance of vital acorns, seedlings and saplings produced by numerous mature trees, may lead to a sustained propagule pressure and the expansion of this “sleeper weed”. © 2014 Lietuvos Misku Institutas. All rights reserved.

Banas J.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Bujoczek L.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Zieba S.,Agricultural University of Krakow | Drozd M.,Bureau for Forest Management and Geodesy
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2014

In the modern forestry paradigm, many factors influence the amount of coarse woody debris (CWD). The present paper analyzes the effects of both local (national) programs (special functions of forests) and European programs (Natura 2000 sites), as well as the individual characteristics of forest stands. The study was conducted on 2,752 sampling plots distributed over an area of about 17,500 ha and located in lowland stands having a species composition typical of large areas in central Europe. Natura 2000 areas contained significantly more CWD (8.4 m3/ha) than areas not covered by the program (4.8 m3/ha). However, this is due to the fact that Natura 2000 sites involve well-preserved forest areas, such as nature reserves (26.6 m3/ha). In the managed forests that have been covered by the Natura 2000 program over the past several years, the volume of CWD has not increased. Forests with ecological and social functions differed slightly in the amount of CWD. More CWD occurred in protected animal areas (8.7 m3/ha) than in stands damaged by industry (3.9 m3/ha). Intermediate CWD levels were found in water-protection forests and in forests located around cities and military facilities. In managed forests, the lowest CWD volume was observed in middle-aged stands. The species composition of the stand had little effect on the volume of CWD. Only stands with a predominance of ash and alder had higher CWD levels (13.5 m3/ha). More CWD was found in stands whose species composition did not represent the potential site quality (6.4 m3/ha) than in habitats with the optimum species composition (3.8 m3/ha). CWD volume should be systematically increased taking into consideration local natural conditions. Such efforts should be focused on particularly valuable regions, and especially on Natura 2000 sites, where the threshold values reported from other European forests should be reached. Leaving some trees to die naturally and retaining reasonable amounts of such trees ought to be incorporated into CWD management practice in Poland. © 2014, The Author(s).

Talarczyk A.,Bureau for Forest Management and Geodesy
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2014

In addition to stand-wise inventory, Poland carries out continuous national forest inventory (NFI) program based on sample plot measurements and statistical methods. The method is highly comparable with traditional inventory methods. Currently, the NFI has become the primary information source for national statistics on forests in Poland. This review describes methodology and current results of the NFI in Poland. © 2014 Lietuvos Misku Institutas. All rights reserved.

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