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Bells Corners, Canada

Gill S.,Toxicology Research Division | Kavanagh M.,Toxicology Research Division | Barker M.,Bureau of Chemical Safety | Weld M.,Premarket Toxicology Assessment Section | And 3 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2011

Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound formed during heat treatment for processing and preservation of various types of food. Rodent studies have previously shown that furan is a hepatocarcinogen. Those studies were conducted over a high dose range, which induced tumors at nearly 100% incidence at all doses. This ninety-day gavage study in mice was conducted to extend the dose to a lower range (0.0, 0.03, 0.12, 0.5, 2.0, and 8.0 mg/kg body weight [bw] per day) to identify a no-observed adverse effect level for hepatotoxicity and to characterize non-neoplastic effects, including those affecting clinical biochemistry, hematology, tissue morphology, and histopathology. The liver was the primary target organ with dose-dependent toxicity. Liver weights were increased at the 8.0 mg/kg bw dose in females only. Levels of the serum enzyme alanine transaminase, representative of liver damage, were increased three-fold at the highest dose. Histological changes in the liver were observed at 2.0 and 8.0 mg/kg bw in both sexes. Although clinical parameters were also altered for the kidney, these differences were not accompanied by histological changes. Based on these clinical biochemical and histological changes, a no-observed adverse effect level of 0.12 mg/kg bw per day of furan in mice is suggested. © 2011 by The Author(s). Source

Bartholomaeus A.,University of Queensland | Bartholomaeus A.,University of Canberra | Parrott W.,University of Georgia | Bondy G.,Bureau of Chemical Safety | Walker K.,ILSI International Food Biotechnology Committee
Critical Reviews in Toxicology | Year: 2013

There is disagreement internationally across major regulatory jurisdictions on the relevance and utility of whole food (WF) toxicity studies on GM crops, with no harmonization of data or regulatory requirements. The scientific value, and therefore animal ethics, of WF studies on GM crops is a matter addressable from the wealth of data available on commercialized GM crops and WF studies on irradiated foods. We reviewed available GM crop WF studies and considered the extent to which they add to the information from agronomic and compositional analyses. No WF toxicity study was identified that convincingly demonstrated toxicological concern or that called into question the adequacy, sufficiency, and reliability of safety assessments based on crop molecular characterization, transgene source, agronomic characteristics, and/or compositional analysis of the GM crop and its near-isogenic line. Predictions of safety based on crop genetics and compositional analyses have provided complete concordance with the results of wellconducted animal testing. However, this concordance is primarily due to the improbability of de novo generation of toxic substances in crop plants using genetic engineering practices and due to the weakness of WF toxicity studies in general. Thus, based on the comparative robustness and reliability of compositional and agronomic considerations and on the absence of any scientific basis for a significant potential for de novo generation of toxicologically significant compositional alterations as a sole result of transgene insertion, the conclusion of this review is that WF animal toxicity studies are unnecessary and scientifically unjustifiable. Source

Liu H.,Environment Canada | Scott P.M.,Bureau of Chemical Safety
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

For the analysis of blue-green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25-500 μg g-1, blue-green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70-90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue-green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 mg g-1, and the limit of quantification was 52 μg g-1. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. Source

Cao X.-L.,Food Research Division | Perez-Locas C.,Quebec Regional Laboratory | Dufresne G.,Quebec Regional Laboratory | Clement G.,Quebec Regional Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2011

A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g-1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g-1), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g-1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g-1), canned peas (16.8 ng g-1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g-1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g-1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g-1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g-1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g-1), baking powder (0.64 ng g-1), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g-1), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g-1), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g-1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age- sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 μgkg-1 body weight day-1 for infants, 0.082-0.23 μgkg-1 body weight day-1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 μgkg-1 body weight day-1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. Source

Gill S.S.,Toxicology Research Division | Kavanagh M.,Toxicology Research Division | Cherry W.,Toxicology Research Division | Barker M.,Toxicology Research Division | And 2 more authors.
Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2014

In most thermally treated products, a series of alkylated furan derivatives have been found, in particular 2-substituted alkylfurans such as 2-methylfuran. These methyl analogs are metabolically activated in a similar fashion as the parent furan, yielding highly reactive unsaturated dialdehydes. There is currently limited toxicological data available for 2-methyl furan exposure by any route that makes conducting a risk assessment difficult. In this pilot study, we report the general toxicology findings affecting tissue morphology, histopathology, clinical biochemistry, and hematology in a 28-day gavage study. The liver was the primary target organ that developed dose-dependent toxicity. Relative liver weights were increased by 42% at 25.0 mg/kg/body weight (bw)/day. Histological changes in the liver were observed at 0.4, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 25.0 mg/kg bw/day. These changes were not accompanied by clinical changes in the serum enzyme markers such as alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and aspartate transaminase. Clinical biochemistry markers for kidney were altered, but these were not accompanied by histological changes. The prostate was significantly decreased in size at the 25.0 mg/kg bw/day dose of 2-methyfuran. Some hematological parameters were also altered. © 2013 by The Author(s). Source

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