Hannover, Germany
Hannover, Germany

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Reid A.,SASA | Hof L.,Naktuinbouw | Felix G.,SASA | Rucker B.,Bundessortenamt | And 6 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

The European Union Common Catalogue (EUCC) for potato contains over 1000 varieties. Each year member states add varieties to the list after they have undergone Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) testing according to international guidelines. A rapid and robust method for variety identification to aid the management and maintenance of existing variety collections and for the screening of new candidate varieties would therefore be a highly useful tool for DUS testing stations. A database containing key morphological characteristics and microsatellite data was constructed for varieties on the 2006 list of the EUCC for potato. Rules for scoring SSR markers in different laboratories were established to allow a harmonized scoring of markers. Almost all varieties (99.5%) were shown to have unique molecular profiles and in pair wise comparisons 99.99% of all variety pairs could be distinguished. This clearly shows the versatility of the markers and database for identifying potato samples. © 2011 Crown Copyright.


Rukavina I.,Hrvatski centar za poljoprivredu | Maric S.,Sveuciliste Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku | Guberac V.,Sveuciliste Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku | Cupic T.,Poljoprivredni Institute Osijek | Tepper C.,Bundessortenamt
Poljoprivreda | Year: 2012

Glutenins loci were used for variability estimation in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding centres. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used for determination of high molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS). Number of allels per loci ranged from 3 at Glu-A1 to 5 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, the average number of allels was 4.33. The highest genetic diversity was found at loci Glu-B1 (He=0.687). The most frequent subunit at loci Glu-A1 was 2* (56%). At loci Glu-B1 the most common combination of subunits was 7+8 with 40%, and at loci Glu-D1 5+10 with 68%. The study also defines high quality varieties with largest number of Glu-scores. The results attained from this study allow further development of specific breeding programs for winter wheat quality improvement and improvers creation.


Piepho H.-P.,University of Hohenheim | Laidig F.,Bundessortenamt | Drobek T.,Bundessortenamt | Me Yer U.,Bundessortenamt
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Long-term yield trends of crop varieties may be studied to identify a genetic trend component due to breeding efforts and a non-genetic trend component due to advances in agronomic practices. Many such studies have been undertaken, and most of these inspect trends either by plotting means against years and/or by some kind of regression analysis based on such plots. Dissection of genetic and non-genetic trend components is a key challenge in such analyses. In the present paper, we consider mixed models with regression components for identifying different sources of trend. We pay particular attention to the effect of disease breakdown, which is shown to be confounded with long-term genetic and non-genetic trends, causing an overestimation of genetic trends based on long-term yield trial data. The models are illustrated using German multi-environment trial data on yield, mildew and Septoria leaf blotch susceptibility for winter wheat and yield, mildew and net blotch susceptibility for spring barley. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.


Kleinknecht K.,University of Hohenheim | Mohring J.,University of Hohenheim | Laidig F.,Bundessortenamt | Meyer U.,Bundessortenamt | Piepho H.P.,University of Hohenheim
Crop Science | Year: 2016

Plant breeding and official variety testing involve the challenge to design multienvironmental trials in several years and locations. Several variables influence the performance and, therefore, the possible selection gain of such trials. We provide a simulation-based approach using SAS to vary these variables and to allow a comparison of different scenarios for the design of series of trials regarding selection gain. Our approach builds on the FORTRAN software tool SELSYS. Three examples of its application are given. © Crop Science Society of America.


Laidig F.,Bundessortenamt | Piepho H.-P.,University of Hohenheim | Rentel D.,Bundessortenamt | Drobek T.,Bundessortenamt | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2016

Key message: Over the last 32 years, a large gain in grain yield (24%) was achieved in official German variety trials, and despite considerable loss in protein concentration (−7.9%), winter wheat baking quality was partially improved over the last 32 years. On-farm gain in grain yield (32%) exceeded gain in trials, but at yield level about 25 dt ha−1lower. Breeding progress was very successfully transferred into both progress in grain yield and on-farm baking quality.Abstract: Long-term gains in grain yield and baking quality of 316 winter wheat varieties from German official trials were evaluated. We dissected progress into a genetic and a non-genetic part to quantify the contribution of genetic improvement. We further investigated the influence of genotype and environment on total variation by estimating variance components. We also estimated genetic and phenotypic correlation between quality traits. For trial data, we found a large gain in grain yield (24%), but a strong decline in protein concentration (−8.0%) and loaf volume (−8.5%) relative to 1983. Improvement of baking quality could be achieved for falling number (5.8%), sedimentation value (7.9%), hardness (13.4%), water absorption (1.2%) and milling yield (2.4%). Grain yield, falling number and protein concentration were highly influenced by environment, whereas for sedimentation value, hardness, water absorption and loaf volume genotypes accounted for more than 60% of total variation. Strong to very strong relations exist among protein concentration, sedimentation value, and loaf volume. On-farm yields were obtained from national statistics, and grain quality data from samples collected by national harvest survey. These on-farm data were compared with trial results. On-farm gain in grain yield was 31.6%, but at a mean level about 25 dt ha−1 lower. Improvement of on-farm quality exceeded trial results considerably. A shift to varieties with improved baking quality can be considered as the main reason for this remarkable improvement of on-farm baking quality. © 2016 The Author(s)


Laidig F.,Bundessortenamt | Piepho H.-P.,University of Hohenheim | Drobek T.,Bundessortenamt | Meyer U.,Bundessortenamt
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message: Yield progress in major German crops is generated mostly due to genetic improvement over the last 30 years. Comparison of trial-station with on-farm yield reveals considerable gaps that are widening over time.Abstract: Yield progress of newly released varieties for 12 crops from official German trials over the period 1983 until 2012 was analysed to assess their value for cultivation and use (VCU). We paid special attention to dissect progress into a genetic and a non-genetic (agronomic) trend in order to quantify the contribution made by new varieties and by agronomic factors. In this study, we apply mixed models including regression components for genetic and agronomic trends. Ageing effects, depending on the difference of the actual testing year and the first year of testing of a particular variety, were estimated from the difference of fungicide and non-fungicide-treated trial pairs. Significant yield losses were found in all cereal crops due to assumed ageing effects. We compared national on-farm with official VCU trial yields with particular focus on whether gaps are widening over time. Results indicated a significant widening over time. In order to facilitate comparisons of results across crops, we calculated percent rates based on 1983 yield levels obtained from regression estimates. Most of the yield progress was generated by genetic improvement, and was linear showing no levelling-off. Ageing and selection effects need to be taken into account, because they may lead to overestimation of genetic trends. This study showed that contribution of agronomic factors is of minor importance in overall yield progress. © 2014, The Author(s).


Miedaner T.,University of Hohenheim | Mirdita V.,University of Hohenheim | Rodemann B.,Julius Kuehn Institute Federal Research Center for Cultivated Plants | Drobeck T.,Bundessortenamt | Rentel D.,Bundessortenamt
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Ergot caused by Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. is a serious threat to rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivation. It produces sclerotia containing a mixture of alkaloids toxic to animals and humans. For improving ergot resistance in rye a reliable field testing with a minimal disturbance by pollen transfer between plots is indispensable. We evaluated 85 rye cultivars of four types of cultivar (population, synthetic, and hybrid cultivars, hybrids blended with 10% population rye) under inoculation in 3 years (2005, 2006 and 2007) and analysed ergot incidence (% of affected heads) and ergot severity (% of sclerotia in grain by weight) at nine and ten environments (location × year combinations), respectively. Cultivar types were separated by border plots and each entry was additionally surrounded by four border plots of similar size (3-8 m2) in a chess-board design. Disease level ranged from 10-27% affected heads and 0.7-2.6% sclerotia in grain in individual environments. Both, cultivar type and cultivars showed significant (P = 0.01) variation for both traits, interactions with environment were also significant (P = 0.01). Population cultivars had less than half the disease level than the other types of cultivar for both traits. Synthetic, hybrid, and blended hybrid cultivars did on average not differ significantly from each other. Blending had an ergot-reducing effect only for the more susceptible entries. The best two hybrid cultivars showed an ergot reaction similar to some population cultivars. However, the best population cultivar still had only half the amount of sclerotia in grain than the best hybrid cultivar (0.37% vs. 0.89%). Ergot incidence and ergot severity were highly (P = 0.01) correlated. We conclude that a good genotypic differentiation among rye cultivars is achievable by field inoculation of Claviceps purpurea across years with this design and testing within national listing trials is feasible. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Federal Institute of Food and Nutrition, Bundessortenamt and University of Hohenheim
Type: | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2016

Over the last 32years, a large gain in grain yield (24 %) was achieved in official German variety trials, and despite considerable loss in protein concentration (-7.9 %), winter wheat baking quality was partially improved over the last 32years. On-farm gain in grain yield (32 %) exceeded gain in trials, but at yield level about 25dtha


Behn A.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung | Ladewig E.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung | Manthey R.,Bundessortenamt | Varrelmann M.,Institute For Zuckerrubenforschung
Zuckerindustrie | Year: 2012

Variety trials for resistance testing of sugar beet against Rhizoctonia solani under natural environmental conditions do not allow reliable assessments of the desired plant phenotype due to the pathogen's patchy occurrence in the field. Bioassays under controlled environmental conditions in the greenhouse showed that sugar beet can be artificially infected via inoculation with R. solani (AG 2-2 IIIB) infested barley. The trials revealed a reliable differentiation between resistant and susceptible standard cultivars, however, because of a high variation in the degree of infestation, the establishment of a reliable ranking with regard to the resistance level of the tested cultivars was not possible. Field trials with R. solani-inoculation in 16 environments showed that artificial infection of the crop was also possible under natural environmental conditions. Although the infection level of the sugar beet varied depending on site, environmental conditions and the amount of inoculum applied, resistant and susceptible phenotypes could be clearly distinguished. However, preparation of a ranking regarding the plants' resistance level was not possible either. First experiments for optimization of the Rhizoctonia resistance test in the field showed that the infection level with R. solani could be elevated at sites which are not naturally infested by increasing soil humidity and temperature by means of irrigation and fleece cover.


PubMed | Bundessortenamt
Type: Journal Article | Journal: TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2014

Yield progress in major German crops is generated mostly due to genetic improvement over the last 30years. Comparison of trial-station with on-farm yield reveals considerable gaps that are widening over time. Yield progress of newly released varieties for 12 crops from official German trials over the period 1983 until 2012 was analysed to assess their value for cultivation and use (VCU). We paid special attention to dissect progress into a genetic and a non-genetic (agronomic) trend in order to quantify the contribution made by new varieties and by agronomic factors. In this study, we apply mixed models including regression components for genetic and agronomic trends. Ageing effects, depending on the difference of the actual testing year and the first year of testing of a particular variety, were estimated from the difference of fungicide and non-fungicide-treated trial pairs. Significant yield losses were found in all cereal crops due to assumed ageing effects. We compared national on-farm with official VCU trial yields with particular focus on whether gaps are widening over time. Results indicated a significant widening over time. In order to facilitate comparisons of results across crops, we calculated percent rates based on 1983 yield levels obtained from regression estimates. Most of the yield progress was generated by genetic improvement, and was linear showing no levelling-off. Ageing and selection effects need to be taken into account, because they may lead to overestimation of genetic trends. This study showed that contribution of agronomic factors is of minor importance in overall yield progress.

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