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Fischer-Tenhagen C.,Free University of Berlin | Wetterholm L.,Hundcampus | Tenhagen B.-A.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung | Heuwieser W.,Free University of Berlin
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2011

Dogs can be trained for various odour detection tasks, and have been used to search for explosives, drugs or cancer biomarkers. However, there are only a few studies that have attempted to train dogs for oestrus detection using vaginal fluid, milk or urine of cows. In this study, seven dogs were trained utilizing special training equipment to discriminate oestrus against dioestrus scent in vaginal fluid, urine and milk of dairy cows. We set out (1) to determine the length of the learning phase of dogs using vaginal discharge to identify cows in oestrus, (2) to prove that dogs can generalize oestrus specific odour of cows and are not limited to an individual cow scent in oestrus, and (3) to study if dogs can identify oestrus specific odour in urine and milk, after they have been trained with vaginal fluid. Our results demonstrate that dogs can be trained for oestrus detection with vaginal swabs or urine of cows using special laboratory equipment within 52 positive reinforced contacts to the target scent. The dogs were correctly identifying the oestrus sample with a maximum accuracy of 80.3%. They could verify this accuracy in a blinded test situation testing novel samples. The dogs in this study were able to detect oestrus in urine and milk samples spontaneously, after being trained with vaginal fluid samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae were detected shortly after the introduction of broad spectrum cephalosporins in hospitals. Today, they are prevalent in the community, in animals, foods, and the environment. Many factors contribute to the broad distribution, especially the usage of antimicrobials in humans and animals, and due to multiple resistances, not only the usage of β-lactams and cephalosporins. This broad distribution of ESBLs cannot be fully explained by clonal spread of successful strains. Horizontal transmission of resistance genes, located on transmissible elements, probably plays a much greater role. This gene transfer also enables new combinations of resistance genes which causes therapeutic problems. The complex interactions make it difficult to estimate the relative contribution of the different sources. Resistance genes are broadly distributed in humans, animals, and the environment and the distribution pattern seems to become more similar. It is also evident that two major transmission pathways have to be considered, human-to-human transmission, frequently in hospitals and the exchange of resistance genes between humans, animals, food, and the environment. For the latter, the transfer can go in both directions. Further studies are necessary to understand the pathways between the different reservoirs, the bacterial concentration needed, and the factors having an impact on colonization and transmission. Multiple measures on both the human and veterinary side have to complement each other and interact. A One Health approach needs to be developed and rigorously established. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Microbiological Criteria (MC) providing the framework to enhance food safety. Based on a formal risk analysis approach these criteria are connected to an Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) as well as to a Food Safety Objective (FSO), a Performance Objective (PO), a Performance Criteria (PC) and to a Process Criteria (PC). An ALOP describes the level of protection deemed necessary for the whole population. In connection with this, an FSO provides the translation of an ALOP into a practical tool at the end of the food processing in setting i.e. a maximum level of bacteria to be tolerated in the respective food. A PO defines a certain concentration of pathogens to be allowed at a selected food processing step while a PC is the effect of a certain processing step on the relevant bacteria. Metrics like ALOP, FSO, PO and PC provide the framework for the application of Microbiological Criteria. Within the risk analysis procedure, as laid down by the Codex Alimentarius during the past ten years, metrics link food safety activities to public health via risk assessment. However, it is still unclear how these new concepts will be used in practice. A document issued by the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) from 1997 titled "Principles for the Application of Microbiological Criteria" is now under revision to include also recent food safety strategies to give practical guidance for implementation of microbiological criteria using the new terminology of metrics. © M. & H. Schaper GmbH & Co. Source


Ulbrich B.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Human health risk assessment for pesticides is based mainly on animal studies submitted by the applicant and aims to determine safe exposure levels for operators (farmers and agricultural workers) and consumers of all age groups. Critical effects, including those resulting from reproductive toxicity, are identified during hazard assessment from an evaluation of all studies in the toxicity package. Reproductive or developmental effects are considered critical if they are more severe or occur at lower doses than other toxicities. Reference values for human exposure are then derived from No Adverse Effect Levels for the relevant critical effects by applying safety factors. This paper describes methods and caveats applicable to the evaluation of prenatal toxicity and two-generation studies from the view of a regulator, stressing the importance of individual litter data and the relationship between different endpoints. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Sprague L.D.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Al-Dahouk S.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung | Neubauer H.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2012

In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012. Source

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