During I.,Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH and Co. KG |
Bachlin W.,Ingenieurbuero Lohmeyer GmbH and Co. KG |
Ketzel M.,University of Aarhus |
Baum A.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen |
And 2 more authors.
Meteorologische Zeitschrift | Year: 2011
Although many German monitoring sites report declines of NOx concentrations, NO2-concentrations actually stagnate or even increase quite often. Various analyses have identified the altered compositions of nitrogen oxides (NO2/NOx-ratio) emitted by motor vehicles (resulting in an increase of primary NO2-emissions) as well as the chemical environmental conditions (mainly ground level ozone) as the main causes. The chemical conversion of NO to NO2 is often parameterized in dispersion calculations of exhaust emissions. A widely applied conversion model is the so-called Romberg approach from 1996. However, the Romberg approach has to be re-evaluated to accommodate the above-mentioned conditions. This article presents an adjustment to the Romberg approach in accordance with the measured data from 2000 to 2006, taking into consideration substantially higher NO2/NOx-ratios especially for higher NO x-concentrations. Model calculations with OSPM (Operational Street Pollution Model) including its internal chemistry module are able to reproduce very well the trends in the measured annual NO2-concentrations over a 10 year period. The relevant parameters for variations between the years are the NOx-emissions, primary NO2-emissions, ozone concentrations, wind conditions, and background concentrations. A simplified chemistry model based on annual mean NOx- and NO2- concentrations, and background ozone concentrations, as well as primary NO 2-emissions is presented as a better method than the updated Romberg approach. This model simulates the annual mean NO2-concentrations much more accurately than the conventional and the updated Romberg approaches. © by Gebrüder Borntraeger 2011.
Markvollrath,TU Braunschweig |
Schleicher S.,Lehrstuhl fur Versorgungssystemforschung und Grundlagen der Qualitatssicherung in der Rehabilitation |
Gelau C.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2011
Although Cruise Control (CC) is available for most cars, no studies have been found which examine how this automation system influences driving behaviour. However, a relatively large number of studies have examined Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) which compared to CC includes also a distance control. Besides positive effects with regard to a better compliance to speed limits, there are also indications of smaller distances to lead vehicles and slower responses in situations that require immediate braking. Similar effects can be expected for CC as this system takes over longitudinal control as well. To test this hypothesis, a simulator study was conducted at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Twenty-two participants drove different routes (highway and motorway) under three different conditions (assisted by ACC, CC and manual driving without any system). Different driving scenarios were examined including a secondary task condition. On the one hand, both systems lead to lower maximum velocities and less speed limit violations. There was no indication that drivers shift more of their attention towards secondary tasks when driving with CC or ACC. However, there were delayed driver reactions in critical situations, e.g.; in a narrow curve or a fog bank. These results give rise to some caution regarding the safety effects of these systems, especially if in the future their range of functionality (e.g.; ACC Stop-and-Go) is further increased. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
Freundt U.,Bauhaus University Weimar |
Boning S.,Bauhaus University Weimar |
Kaschner R.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Bauingenieur | Year: 2012
The guideline for existing bridges  conduce to the evaluation of existing road bridges in regard to resistance, serviceability and durability under consideration of the condition of the bridge structure and based on local actual and estimate road traffic. Hence a definition of the actions due to the road traffic based on measured traffic data for the observed bridge is necessary. In analogy to the design of new bridges these actions are represented by load models. Beside the actual load model LM1, the historical load models BK30/30, BK60 and BK60/30 are used for the representation of the actions from side specific road traffic. The way of the determination of the appropriate load model according to the side specific road traffic and the integration of these load models in the actual safety concept is shown.
Road bridges between actual and future heavy load traffic Road traffic loads according to DIN en 1991-2/NA [Straßenbrücken zwischen aktuellem und zukünftigem Verkehr - Straßenverkehrslasten nach DIN EN 1991-2/NA]
Freundt U.,Bauhaus University Weimar |
Boning S.,Bauhaus University Weimar |
Kaschner R.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Beton- und Stahlbetonbau | Year: 2011
The effects of the actual heavy load traffic on the Germen road network and the predicted future development of this traffic to the actions on road bridges are analysed. The main focus are the loads for the design of new road bridges. Analyses for the load on existing bridges are given too. Those are part of the guideline for recalculation of bridges. © 2011 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.
The use of alcohol ignition interlocks: Occurrence in Europe, research results and barriers to implementation [Der einsatz atemalkoholgesteuerter wegfahrsperren: Verbreitung in Europa, forschungsergebnisse und barrieren der einführung]
Klipp S.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Blutalkohol | Year: 2010
The publication at hand overviews the present alcohol ignition interlock programs implemented in Europe so far. It sums up the current research status and explains barriers to a Europe wide introduction of these programs.
Holst R.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen |
Sperber M.,TUV Rheinland Industrie Service GmbH |
Gossmann R.,TUV Rheinland Industrie Service GmbH
Bautechnik | Year: 2016
Structural inspection supported by new inspection techniques – First results. The road infrastructure has reached the edge of its service capability by increased external impacts and increasing average age and maintenance measure will be implemented in future to a considerable extent. To carry out the maintenance measures in a technically and economically optimal may, it's necessary to be informed at an early stage as fully as possible about the current state of the structure. For this it's necessary to find and evaluate new innovative techniques to support bridge inspection in accordance with German Standard DIN 1076. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) provide a range of possibilities of photo recording and may thus be used as an auxiliary in bridge inspections. As part of this research project, flights were operated to three bridges and the use of UAS allowed identifying damage to the bridges in question. Given the possibility to operate flights to areas which are not easily accessible as well as time savings during testing offered by the use of UAS, this technology seems attractive for inspections of bridges. The targeted use of UAS will result in reduced service failures and an increase in the quality of results. Copyright © 2016 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin
Bartolomaeus W.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Larmbekampfung | Year: 2010
In this paper the emission models of RLS-90 and RVS (pure A-weighted methods) of NMPB 2008, SonRoad (with standard spectrum) and CNOSSOS (differentiated spectral data of the acoustic emission) are described and compared. The approaches for rolling and engine noise are some very similar, but show also significant differences which is present also in the overall noise level. An estimation of the total uncertainty is about 3 dB (A). The influence of the gradient (upwards/downwards) cannot (yet) final evaluated according to uncertainty, since it is treated very different in the various emission models. For different road surfaces, an uncertainty of 1-2 dB(A) is estimated. The uncertainty due to uncertain data for traffic volumes and speeds are in a similar area.
Holst R.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Bautechnik | Year: 2015
The business location Germany requires an efficient and reliable road infrastructure. Bridges can become a bottleneck when unplanned traffic restrictions to the point of closures can occur. In the past this possible situation wasn't considered sufficiently and thus it is to attach more importance to systematic bridge maintenance. The reasons for the current state of the bridges are as varied as the bridges themselves. Planning and execution errors play a role, but also the fact that traffic has increased significantly more than any forecast of the past have predicted is very important. Bridges are normally unique and therefore they behave very differently. So the spectrum of the necessary collection and assessment options and the resulting maintenance measures are very diverse. Thus, the challenge in the future is to address this diversity appropriately in order to obtain the bridges as sustainable as possible. The different tools exist for it, shall be developed and updated. Now it's time to use these facilities systematically, to find the most suitable maintenance measures for the entire bridge inventory with the least possible effort and the least possible interferences of the traffic before and during the maintenance actions. © Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.
Van Dornick B.,Bundesministerium fur Verkehr |
Wehner-Heil A.,Bundesanstalt fur Strassenwesen
Natur und Landschaft | Year: 2013
Federal highways represent a highly de-veloped linear transport infrastructure. Highly frequented highways consisting of more than two lanes are usually strong barriers to wildlife. In contrast to other effects of roads it is possible to mitigate fragmentation effects by use of special built structures such as ecoducts, green bridges or underpasses. A 'Federal De-fragmentation Programme' has been adopted by the German government. The German federal states (Lander) are now requested to investigate opportunities for defragmentation measures on 93 priority sections of federal highways. Ecoducts and green underpasses may serve both the defragmentation of wildlife habitat and the safety of road users as a result of the reduction of game accidents.
PubMed | Verkehrsunfallforschung, Daimler AG, FSD GmbH, Polizeidirektion Dresden. and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zeitschrift fur Orthopadie und Unfallchirurgie | Year: 2015
For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for severely injured, seriously injured and critically injured. By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (>60 years) are a minority (10%) but represent a majority (50%) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145% more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500W and a possible speed of 45km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96% of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 alcohol in their blood, 86% more than 1.1 and 59% more than 1.7. Fatalities are seen in 24.2% of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180 enable about 93% of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35% significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9% on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher Verkehrssicherheitsrat as, e.g., Helmets are cool. Also, spots in TV should be broadcasted like The 7th sense or Traffic compass, which were warning car drivers many years ago of moments of danger but now they could be used to warn bicyclists of life-threatening situations in traffic.